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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 572, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut fungal (mycobiota) and bacterial (microbiota) communities has been elucidated individually. This study analyzed both gut mycobiota and microbiota and their correlation in the COVID-19 patients with severe and mild conditions and follow-up to monitor their alterations after recovery. METHODS: We analyzed the gut mycobiota and microbiota by bacterial 16S and fungal ITS1 metagenomic sequencing of 40 severe patients, 38 mild patients, and 30 healthy individuals and reanalyzed those of 10 patients with severe COVID-19 approximately 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: The mycobiota of the severe and mild groups showed lower diversity than the healthy group, and in some, characteristic patterns dominated by a single fungal species, Candida albicans, were detected. Lower microbial diversity in the severe group was observed, but no differences in its diversity or community structure were detected between the mild and healthy groups. The microbiota of the severe group was characterized by an increase in Enterococcus and Lactobacillus, and a decrease in Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides. The abundance of Candida was positively correlated with that of Enterococcus in patients with COVID-19. After the recovery of severe patients, alteration of the microbiota remained, but the mycobiota recovered its diversity comparable to that of mild and healthy groups. CONCLUSION: In mild cases, the microbiota is stable during SARS-CoV-2 infection, but in severe cases, alterations persist for 6 months after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Enterococcus , Feces/microbiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 9(2): 024003, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883245

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We propose a super-resolution (SR) method, named SR-CycleGAN, for SR of clinical computed tomography (CT) images to the micro-focus x-ray CT CT ( µ CT ) level. Due to the resolution limitations of clinical CT (about 500 × 500 × 500 µ m 3 / voxel ), it is challenging to obtain enough pathological information. On the other hand, µ CT scanning allows the imaging of lung specimens with significantly higher resolution (about 50 × 50 × 50 µ m 3 / voxel or higher), which allows us to obtain and analyze detailed anatomical information. As a way to obtain detailed information such as cancer invasion and bronchioles from preoperative clinical CT images of lung cancer patients, the SR of clinical CT images to the µ CT level is desired. Approach: Typical SR methods require aligned pairs of low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution images for training, but it is infeasible to obtain precisely aligned paired clinical CT and µ CT images. To solve this problem, we propose an unpaired SR approach that can perform SR on clinical CT to the µ CT level. We modify a conventional image-to-image translation network named CycleGAN to an inter-modality translation network named SR-CycleGAN. The modifications consist of three parts: (1) an innovative loss function named multi-modality super-resolution loss, (2) optimized SR network structures for enlarging the input LR image to 2 k -times by width and height to obtain the SR output, and (3) sub-pixel shuffling layers for reducing computing time. Results: Experimental results demonstrated that our method successfully performed SR of lung clinical CT images. SSIM and PSNR scores of our method were 0.54 and 17.71, higher than the conventional CycleGAN's scores of 0.05 and 13.64, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed SR-CycleGAN is usable for the SR of a lung clinical CT into µ CT scale, while conventional CycleGAN output images with low qualitative and quantitative values. More lung micro-anatomy information could be observed to aid diagnosis, such as the shape of bronchioles walls.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(650): eabn7737, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807308

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant contains an unusually high number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns of escape from vaccines, convalescent serum, and therapeutic drugs. Here, we analyzed the degree to which Omicron pseudo-virus evades neutralization by serum or therapeutic antibodies. Serum samples obtained 3 months after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination exhibited 18-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than parental virus. Convalescent serum samples from individuals infected with the Alpha and Delta variants allowed similar frequencies of Omicron breakthrough infections. Domain-wise analysis using chimeric spike proteins revealed that this efficient evasion was primarily achieved by mutations clustered in the receptor binding domain but that multiple mutations in the N-terminal domain contributed as well. Omicron escaped a therapeutic cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab, which targets a conserved region to avoid viral mutation, remains effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoys are another virus-neutralizing drug modality that are free, at least in theory, from complete escape. Deep mutational analysis demonstrated that an engineered ACE2 molecule prevented escape for each single-residue mutation in the receptor binding domain, similar to immunized serum. Engineered ACE2 neutralized Omicron comparably to the Wuhan strain and also showed a therapeutic effect against Omicron infection in hamsters and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Similar to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, some sarbecoviruses showed high sensitivity against engineered ACE2, confirming the therapeutic value against diverse variants, including those that are yet to emerge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Exp Med ; 218(12)2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467277

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immunity is a fundamental component in controlling COVID-19. In this process, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that mediate the production of protective antibodies; however, the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes activating Tfh cells are not well characterized. Here, we identified and crystallized TCRs of public circulating Tfh (cTfh) clonotypes that are expanded in patients who have recovered from mild symptoms. These public clonotypes recognized the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) epitopes conserved across emerging variants. The epitope of the most prevalent cTfh clonotype, S864-882, was presented by multiple HLAs and activated T cells in most healthy donors, suggesting that this S region is a universal T cell epitope useful for booster antigen. SARS-CoV-2-specific public cTfh clonotypes also cross-reacted with specific commensal bacteria. In this study, we identified conserved SARS-CoV-2 S epitopes that activate public cTfh clonotypes associated with mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3802, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387351

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has mutated during the global pandemic leading to viral adaptation to medications and vaccinations. Here we describe an engineered human virus receptor, ACE2, by mutagenesis and screening for binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD). Three cycles of random mutagenesis and cell sorting achieved sub-nanomolar affinity to RBD. Our structural data show that the enhanced affinity comes from better hydrophobic packing and hydrogen-bonding geometry at the interface. Additional disulfide mutations caused the fixing of a closed ACE2 conformation to avoid off-target effects of protease activity, and also improved structural stability. Our engineered ACE2 neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at a 100-fold lower concentration than wild type; we also report that no escape mutants emerged in the co-incubation after 15 passages. Therapeutic administration of engineered ACE2 protected hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection, decreased lung virus titers and pathology. Our results provide evidence of a therapeutic potential of engineered ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
J Clin Virol ; 141: 104877, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: . The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has caused an unexpected rebound globally. The World Health Organization has listed three variants (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as variants of concern. To understand the epidemiology and thereby plan appropriate safety measures, differential identification of the variants is indeed critical. OBJECTIVES: . Although whole-genome sequencing is the gold standard for variant identification, it is time-consuming and relatively expensive. Therefore, a rapid, easy, and cost-effective platform targeting multiple regions of the genome is required. Here, we assessed the usefulness of the Novaplex™ SARS-CoV-2 Variants I Assay kit in identifying mutations in the variants. STUDY DESIGN: . We retrospectively examined 30 stored nasal swabs from COVID-19-positive patients tested between November 2020 and March 2021. RNA extracted from these swabs was subjected to the commercial kit and real-time reverse transcription-PCR was performed. To determine the genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 in the collected samples and deduce the consensus sequences among the identified variants, genome sequencing libraries were prepared and mapped to the reference genome. RESULTS: . Four of the tested samples were determined as variants. Of them, two harbored both H69/V70 deletion and N501Y substitution, whereas two harbored E484K substitution alone. CONCLUSIONS: . The variant with E484K substitution alone ("R.1") has been now categorized as a variant of interest in Japan. Additionally, the kit-based assay was found to be feasible, convenient, and user-friendly in identifying the abovementioned mutations with a turnaround time of only 2 h.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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