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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2203437119, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960624

ABSTRACT

The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly correlated with pulmonary vascular pathology accompanied by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-triggered immune dysregulation and aberrant activation of platelets. We combined histological analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses of the lungs from autopsy samples and single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to investigate the pathogenesis of vasculitis and immunothrombosis in COVID-19. We found that SARS-CoV-2 accumulated in the pulmonary vessels, causing exudative vasculitis accompanied by the emergence of thrombospondin-1-expressing noncanonical monocytes and the formation of myosin light chain 9 (Myl9)-containing microthrombi in the lung of COVID-19 patients with fatal disease. The amount of plasma Myl9 in COVID-19 was correlated with the clinical severity, and measuring plasma Myl9 together with other markers allowed us to predict the severity of the disease more accurately. This study provides detailed insight into the pathogenesis of vasculitis and immunothrombosis, which may lead to optimal medical treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Myosin Light Chains , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboinflammation , Vasculitis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Lung/blood supply , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Myosin Light Chains/blood , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Thromboinflammation/pathology , Thromboinflammation/virology , Vasculitis/pathology , Vasculitis/virology
5.
Lancet ; 399(10341): 2113-2128, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a great unmet need for advanced therapies that provide rapid, robust, and sustained disease control for patients with ulcerative colitis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of upadacitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase 1 inhibitor, as induction and maintenance therapy in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: This phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical programme consisted of two replicate induction studies (U-ACHIEVE induction [UC1] and U-ACCOMPLISH [UC2]) and a single maintenance study (U-ACHIEVE maintenance [UC3]). The studies were conducted across Europe, North and South America, Australasia, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region at 199 clinical centres in 39 countries (UC1), 204 clinical centres in 40 countries (UC2), and 195 clinical centres in 35 countries (UC3). Patients aged 16-75 years with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (Adapted Mayo score 5-9; endoscopic subscore 2 or 3) for at least 90 days were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral upadacitinib 45 mg once daily or placebo for 8 weeks (induction studies). Patients who achieved clinical response following 8-week upadacitinib induction were re-randomly assigned (1:1:1) to upadacitinib 15 mg, upadacitinib 30 mg, or placebo for 52 weeks (maintenance study). All patients were randomly assigned using web-based interactive response technology. The primary endpoints were clinical remission per Adapted Mayo score at week 8 (induction) and week 52 (maintenance). The efficacy analyses in the two induction studies were based on the intent-to-treat population, which included all randomised patients who received at least one dose of treatment. In the maintenance study, the primary efficacy analyses reported in this manuscript were based on the first 450 (planned) clinical responders to 8-week induction therapy with upadacitinib 45 mg once daily. The safety analysis population in the induction studies consisted of all randomised patients who received at least one dose of treatment; in the maintenance study, this population included all patients who received at least one dose of treatment as part of the primary analysis population. These studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02819635 (U-ACHIEVE) and NCT03653026 (U-ACCOMPLISH). FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2018, and Sept 7, 2020, 474 patients were randomly assigned to upadacitinib 45 mg once daily (n=319) or placebo (n=155) in UC1. Between Dec 6, 2018, and Jan 14, 2021, 522 patients were randomly assigned to upadacitinib 45 mg once daily (n=345) or placebo (n=177) in UC2. In UC3, a total of 451 patients (21 from the phase 2b study, 278 from UC1, and 152 from UC2) who achieved a clinical response after 8 weeks of upadacitinib induction treatment were randomly assigned again to upadacitinib 15 mg (n=148), upadacitinib 30 mg (n=154), and placebo (n=149) in the primary analysis population. Statistically significantly more patients achieved clinical remission with upadacitinib 45 mg (83 [26%] of 319 patients in UC1 and 114 [34%] of 341 patients in UC2) than in the placebo group (seven [5%] of 154 patients in UC1 and seven [4%] of 174 patients; p<0·0001; adjusted treatment difference 21·6% [95% CI 15·8-27·4] for UC1 and 29·0% [23·2-34·7] for UC2). In the maintenance study, clinical remission was achieved by statistically significantly more patients receiving upadacitinib (15 mg 63 [42%] of 148; 30 mg 80 [52%] of 154) than those receiving placebo (18 [12%] of 149; p<0·0001; adjusted treatment difference 30·7% [21·7-39·8] for upadacitinib 15 mg vs placebo and 39·0% [29·7-48·2] for upadacitinib 30 mg vs placebo). The most commonly reported adverse events in UC1 were nasopharyngitis (15 [5%] of 319 in the upadacitinib 45 mg group vs six [4%] of 155 in the placebo group), creatine phosphokinase elevation (15 [4%] vs three [2%]), and acne (15 [5%] vs one [1%]). In UC2, the most frequently reported adverse event was acne (24 [7%] of 344 in the upadacitinib 45 mg group vs three [2%] of 177 in the placebo group). In both induction studies, serious adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment were less frequent in the upadacitinib 45 mg group than in the placebo group (serious adverse events eight [3%] vs nine (6%) in UC1 and 11 [3%] vs eight [5%] in UC2; adverse events leading to discontinuation six [2%] vs 14 [9%] in UC1 and six [2%] vs nine [5%] in UC2). In UC3, the most frequently reported adverse events (≥5%) were worsening of ulcerative colitis (19 [13%] of 148 in the upadacitinib 15 mg group vs 11 [7%] of 154 in the upadacitinib 30 mg group vs 45 [30%] of 149 in the placebo group), nasopharyngitis (18 [12%] vs 22 [14%] vs 15 [10%]), creatine phosphokinase elevation (nine [6%] vs 13 [8%] vs three [2%]), arthralgia (nine [6%] vs five [3%] vs 15 [10%]), and upper respiratory tract infection (seven [5%] vs nine [6%] vs six [4%]). The proportion of serious adverse events (ten [7%] vs nine [6%] vs 19 [13%]) and adverse events leading to discontinuation (six [4%] vs ten [6%] vs 17 [11%]) was lower in both upadacitinib groups than in the placebo group. Events of cancer, adjudicated major adverse cardiac events, or venous thromboembolism were reported infrequently. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Upadacitinib demonstrated a positive efficacy and safety profile and could be an effective treatment option for patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Colitis, Ulcerative , Nasopharyngitis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Creatine Kinase , Double-Blind Method , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
6.
Immuno ; 1(4):583, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834820

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota has diverse microbial components, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The interaction between gut microbiome components and immune responses has been studied extensively over the last decade. Several studies have reported the potential role of the gut microbiome in maintaining gut homeostasis and the development of disease. The commensal microbiome can preserve the integrity of the mucosal barrier by acting on the host immune system. Contrastingly, dysbiosis-induced inflammation can lead to the initiation and progression of several diseases through inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. In this review, we describe the multifaceted effects of the gut microbiota on several diseases from the perspective of mucosal immunological responses.

7.
J Gastroenterol ; 57(3): 174-184, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a major impact on the health of people worldwide. The clinical background and clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among Japanese patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: This study is an observational cohort of Japanese IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Data on age, sex, IBD (classification, treatment, and activity), COVID-19 symptoms and severity, and treatment of COVID-19 were analyzed. RESULTS: From 72 participating facilities in Japan, 187 patients were registered from June 2020 to October 2021. The estimated incidence of COVID19 in Japanese IBD patients was 0.61%. The majority of IBD patients with COVID-19 (73%) were in clinical remission. According to the WHO classification regarding COVID-19 severity, 93% (172/184) of IBD patients had non-severe episodes, while 7% (12/184) were severe cases including serious conditions. 90.9% (165/187) of IBD patients with COVID-19 had no change in IBD disease activity. A logistic regression analysis stepwise method revealed that older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and steroid use were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity. Six of nine patients who had COVID-19 after vaccination were receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibodies. CONCLUSION: Age, BMI and steroid use were associated with COVID-19 severity in Japanese IBD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
DEN open ; 2(1): e42, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653219

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily cause respiratory symptoms. However, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can also occur. The endoscopic characteristics of the GI tract in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. We herein report a 62-year-old male with severe COVID-19 who needed multidisciplinary treatment, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Despite the improvement in his respiratory status, GI bleeding developed. Capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed extensive mucosal sloughing in the lower intestinal tract. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression levels of various proinflammatory cytokines in the intestinal mucosal tissues. The results suggested a significant elevation of IL-6, which could be involved in the pathophysiology of the GI involvement in COVID-19. Further investigation with more clinical data, including endoscopic findings and molecular analyses, will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of COVID-19-associated GI injury.

10.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(4): 1008-1013, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic, resulting in a global suspension of non-emergency medical procedures such as screening endoscopic examinations. There have been several reports of COVID-19 patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. In this report, we present a case of successful hemostasis of bleeding gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp by endoscopic treatment in a patient with severe COVID-19. The case was under mechanical ventilation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and the airway was on a closed circuit. This indicates that COVID-19 is associated with not only lung injury but also intestinal damage, and that proper protective protocols are essential in guaranteeing the best outcomes for patients and clinical professionals during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leiomyoma , Hemostasis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(5): 409-420, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147593

ABSTRACT

Although primarily a respiratory illness, several studies have shown that COVID-19 causes elevation of liver enzymes and various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms contributed toward COVID-19 severity, and identify the GI symptoms characteristic of severe COVID-19. We conducted a literature search of PubMed from December 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, and identified all reports with GI symptoms reported. A meta-analysis comparing the severity of COVID-19 with the presence of liver enzyme elevation and GI symptoms was performed using RevMan version 5.4. Pooled data from 15,305 unique reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 patients from 44 studies were analyzed. We found that the severe COVID-19 patients significantly had abdominal pain compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients (OR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.17-6.27, Z = 2.32, p = 0.02, I2 = 0%) by analyzed 609 patients of 4 studies who reported both abdominal pain and COVID-19 severity. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting between the two groups. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that abdominal pain could be characteristic of severe COVID-19 infections. Compared with other viral infections that primarily infect the respiratory system, patients with COVID-19 have a slightly lower frequency of diarrheal symptoms with abdominal pain. However, to confirm this, further studies with COVID-19 patients across various countries and ethnicities are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Liver/enzymology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Liver/virology , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
14.
Digestion ; 102(5): 814-822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as a dramatic challenge for all healthcare systems worldwide. This outbreak immediately affected gastroenterologists as well as global physicians worldwide because COVID-19 can be associated with not only triggering respiratory inflammation but also gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation based on the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via its receptor the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is expressed on GI cells. However, the comorbidity spectrum of digestive system in patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. Because the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management involves treating uncontrolled inflammation with immune-based therapies, physicians, and patients have great concern about whether IBD patients are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and have worsened disease courses. SUMMARY: It is necessary to precisely ascertain the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the COVID-19 severity in IBD patients and to acknowledge the IBD management during the COVID-19 pandemic with clinically reliable information from COVID-19 cohorts and IBD experts' opinions. In this review, we highlight clinical questions regarding IBD management during the COVID-19 pandemic and make comments corresponding to each question based on recent publications. Key Messages: We propose that there is (1) no evidence that IBD itself increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, (2) to basically prioritize the control of disease activity of IBD, (3) no need for physicians to suddenly discontinue immunomodulatory or biologic therapy in patients with quiescent IBD, and (4) a need for careful observation of elderly (>60 years old) and IBD patients receiving corticosteroid treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Expert Testimony , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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