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1.
iScience ; : 105742, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149914

ABSTRACT

Summary Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit a cytokine storm characterized by greatly elevated levels of cytokines. Despite this, the interferon (IFN) response is delayed, contributing to disease progression. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 excessively generates small viral RNAs (svRNAs) encoding exact 5′ ends of positive-sense genes in human cells in vitro and ex vivo, whereas endemic human coronaviruses (OC43 and 229E) produce significantly fewer similar svRNAs. SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNAs are RIG-I agonists and induce the IFN-β response in later stages of infection. The first 60-nt ends bearing duplex structures and 5′-triphosphates are responsible for immune-stimulation. We propose that RIG-I activation by accumulated SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNAs may contribute to later drive over-exuberant IFN production. Additionally, the differences in the amounts of svRNAs produced and the corresponding IFN response among CoV strains suggest that lower svRNA production during replication may correlate with the weaker immune response seen in less pathogenic CoVs.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1188, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106511

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved continuously and accumulated spike mutations with each variant having a different binding for the cellular ACE2 receptor. It is not known whether the interactions between such mutated spikes and ACE2 glycans are conserved among different variant lineages. Here, we focused on three ACE2 glycosylation sites (53, 90 and 322) that are geometrically close to spike binding sites and investigated the effect of their glycosylation pattern on spike affinity. These glycosylation deletions caused distinct site-specific changes in interactions with the spike and acted cooperatively. Of note, the particular interaction profiles were conserved between the SARS-CoV-2 parental virus and the variants of concern (VOCs) Delta and Omicron. Our study provides insights for a better understanding of the importance of ACE2 glycosylation on ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike interaction and guidance for further optimization of soluble ACE2 for therapeutic use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Glycosylation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Protein Binding
3.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(6): e5961, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885383

ABSTRACT

Autopsy was performed on a COVID-19 patient, who suddenly died despite the extensive anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies. Although moderate subpleural fibrosis was seen, pathology of DAD, a well-known cause for pulmonary failure, was minimum. Instead, severe hemorrhage was observed. Therapeutic effects were indicated; however, why severe hemorrhage occurred was unclear.

4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(11): 1486-1491, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The increased infectivity and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) could cause significant human and economic damage. Hence, understanding their characteristics is crucial to control infection. We evaluated the environmental stability of the Wuhan strain and all VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2 variants) on plastic and human skin surfaces and their disinfection efficacy. METHODS: To evaluate environmental stability, residual virus titres on plastic and human skin surfaces were measured over time. Their survival time and half-life were calculated using regression analysis. The effectiveness of ethanol-based disinfectants at different concentrations was determined by in vitro and ex vivo evaluations. RESULTS: On plastic and skin surfaces, the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants exhibited approximately two-fold longer survival times than the Wuhan strain; the Omicron variants had the longest survival time. The median survival times of the Wuhan strain and the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) variants on human skin surface were 8.6, 19.6, 19.1, 11.0, 16.8, 21.1, and 22.5 h, respectively. The in vitro evaluation showed that the Wuhan strain and the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) variants were completely inactivated within 15 s by 32.5%, 35%, 35%, 32.5%, 35%, 40%, and 40% ethanol, respectively. However, all viruses on human skin were completely inactivated by exposure to 35% ethanol for 15 s. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, especially the Omicron variants, have higher environmental stability than the Wuhan strain, increasing their transmission risk and contributing to their spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Plastics
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 639-649, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770988

ABSTRACT

Evaluating the stability of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses on human skin and measuring the effectiveness of disinfectants are crucial for preventing contact disease transmission. We constructed an evaluation model using autopsy skin samples and evaluated factors that affect the stability and disinfectant effectiveness for various subtypes. The survival time of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus on plastic surfaces was ≈26 hours and on skin surfaces ≈4.5 hours, >2.5-fold longer than other subtypes. The effectiveness of a relatively low ethanol concentration (32%-36% wt/wt) against the H5N1 subtype was substantially reduced compared with other subtypes. Moreover, recombinant viruses with the neuraminidase gene of H5N1 survived longer on plastic and skin surfaces than other recombinant viruses and were resistant to ethanol. Our results imply that the H5N1 subtype poses a higher contact transmission risk because of its higher stability and ethanol resistance, which might depend on the neuraminidase protein.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Neuraminidase/genetics
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e854-e856, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769213
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4329-e4335, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The stability of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on human skin remains unknown, considering the hazards of viral exposure to humans. We generated a model that allows the safe reproduction of clinical studies on the application of pathogens to human skin and elucidated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on human skin. METHODS: We evaluated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV), mixed with culture medium or upper respiratory mucus, on human skin surfaces and the dermal disinfection effectiveness of 80% (weight/weight) ethanol against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were inactivated more rapidly on skin surfaces than on other surfaces (stainless steel/glass/plastic); the survival time was significantly longer for SARS-CoV-2 than for IAV (9.04 hours [95% confidence interval, 7.96- 10.2 hours] vs 1.82 hours [1.65-2.00 hours]). IAV on other surfaces was inactivated faster in mucus versus medium conditions, while SARS-CoV-2 showed similar stability in the mucus and medium; the survival time was significantly longer for SARS-CoV-2 than for IAV (11.09 hours [10.22-12.00 hours] vs 1.69 hours [1.57-1.81 hours]). Moreover, both SARS-CoV-2 and IAV in the mucus/medium on human skin were completely inactivated within 15 seconds by ethanol treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The 9-hour survival of SARS-CoV-2 on human skin may increase the risk of contact transmission in comparison with IAV, thus accelerating the pandemic. Proper hand hygiene is important to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Influenza A virus , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(23): 16044-16055, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539856

ABSTRACT

Lasting disinfection effects, that is, the residual disinfection effects (RDEs), of skin-coated disinfectants have rarely been considered for infection control owing to the challenges involved in the accurate evaluation of RDEs. In this study, we constructed a new skin evaluation model and determined the RDEs of existing disinfectants against viruses. Our results showed that ethanol and isopropanol had no RDE, whereas povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate, and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) exhibited RDEs, with 10% povidone-iodine and 0.2% BAC showing particularly strong RDEs. The RDE of 0.2% BAC was strong enough to reduce the median survival times of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, human coronavirus-OC43, and influenza virus from 670 to 5.2, 1300 to 12, and 120 to 4.2 min, respectively. Additionally, this strong RDE was maintained even 4 h after coating the skin. Clinical data also showed that the strong RDE of 0.2% BAC was maintained for more than 2 h. Thus, applying disinfectants with strong RDEs on the skin correlates with a reduction in virus survival time and appears to create a skin surface environment that is not conducive to virus survival. A prolonged reduction in virus survival decreases the contact transmission risk, thereby enabling stronger infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Disinfection , Humans , Povidone-Iodine , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 252-256, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510014

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The assessment of the risk of virus transmission through papers, such as postcards, is important. However, the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus (IAV) on different types of papers is currently unknown. Investigation of the survival time of these viruses on different types of papers will provide insights into their risk of long-distance transport by postal items. METHODS: We evaluated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and IAV, mixed with a culture medium, on the surface of postcards with various coatings, including plain paper (PP), inkjet paper (IP), and inkjet photo paper (IPP). The surface structure of each paper was microscopically assessed. RESULTS: The surface structures of PP, IP, and IPP varied greatly depending on the presence or absence, and type, of coat layer, regardless of the base material. IP and IPP surfaces were less conducive to virus survival than PP surfaces, because of the difference in surface shapes. The survival times of SARS-CoV-2 on each paper were approximately 59.8 (PP), 6.5 (IP), and 9.8 h (IPP), and significantly longer than those of IAV (10.3, 1.8, and 3.3 h, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via paper, such as postcards, is significantly higher than that of IAV transmission. While PP, IP, and IPP have the same base material, their surface structures differ, which affects viral stability. The IP and IPP surfaces are less suitable for virus survival. This study provides novel insights into the risks of viral transmission via paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230164

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 rarely shows a cytopathic effect (CPE) after infection of various cell lines, and the indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA), a relatively complex procedure, has long been used as an alternative assay. Because HCoV-OC43 uses cell-surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for cell entry, VeroE6 cells expressing TMPRSS2 may show a clear CPE after HCoV-OC43 infection. The aim of this study was to construct a 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay for HCoV-OC43 based on CPE evaluation using VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells. VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells showed clear CPEs 3 to 4 days after low-titer HCoV-OC43 infection. Evaluation of viral kinetics indicated that the viral titer in the culture supernatant of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells in the early stages of infection was higher than that of other cells. In comparison, between the CPE-based and the IPA-based (i.e., the reference titer) methods, the titer measured with CPE evaluation 4 to 5 days after infection using VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells showed a much smaller difference from the reference titer than that measured using other cells. Thus, the TCID50 assay using CPE evaluation with VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells provides the correct titer value and will greatly contribute to future research on HCoV-OC43.IMPORTANCE HCoV-OC43 rarely shows a cytopathic effect (CPE) in infected cell lines, and thus the plaque and TCID50 assays by CPE observation are not applicable for titration; the indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) is used instead. However, the IPA is relatively complex, time-consuming, costly, and not suitable for simultaneous titration of many samples. We developed a TCID50 assay using CPE evaluation with TMPRSS2-expressing VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells that provides the same accuracy as the conventional IPA-based viral titration and does not require any staining procedures using antibodies or substrates. This titration method will greatly contribute to future research on HCoV-OC43 by allowing simple, low-cost, and accurate titration of this virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/methods , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Vero Cells/virology , Virus Cultivation , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1042.e1-1042.e4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disinfection effectiveness against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on human skin remains unclear because of the hazards of viral exposure. An evaluation model, which has been previously generated using human skin obtained from forensic autopsy samples, accurately mimics in vivo skin conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of disinfection against the virus. Using this model, we evaluated disinfection effectiveness against viruses on human skin. METHODS: Ethanol (EA), isopropanol (IPA), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were used as target disinfectants. First, disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) was evaluated in vitro. Disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin was then evaluated by titrating viruses present on the skin after applying each disinfectant on the skin for 5-60 seconds. RESULTS: Both, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin were completely inactivated within 5 seconds by 40%-80% EA and 70% IPA (log reduction values (LRVs) were >4). However, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were barely inactivated by 20% EA (LRVs were <1). In vitro evaluation showed that, compared with EA and IPA, CHG and BAC were significantly inferior in terms of disinfection effectiveness. Conversely, the disinfection effectiveness of CHG and BAC against SARS-CoV-2 was higher on human skin than in vitro, and increased with increases in their concentration and reaction time (LRVs of 0.2% CHG/0.05% BAC were >2, and LRVs of 1.0% CHG/0.2% BAC were >2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Proper hand hygiene practices using alcohol-based disinfectants such as EA/IPA effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Models, Biological , Skin/virology
12.
Experimental Medicine ; 39(2):65-71, 2021.
Article in Japanese | YODOSHA | ID: covidwho-1124026
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