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1.
TRENDS IN THE SCIENCES ; 26(11):11_60-11_67, 2021.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1761057
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324356

ABSTRACT

Following the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Japanese government announced the Declaration of a State of Emergency in April 2020, which aimed to decrease contact between people and requested that residents refrain from leaving home. Even in the absence of penalties, outings decreased under the declaration. We are interested in how outings declined and studied the substitution relationship between Internet use and outings. A web-based survey was conducted to collect data on Internet use and outings in a retrospective manner. The period covered by our data is from mid-February to mid-May 2020. Multilevel analysis and correspondence analysis were performed to examine the relationship between Internet use and outings. The results clearly show that Internet use replaced outings. In particular, Internet use for socializing, exercise, and leisure/entertainment had a significant substitution relationship with outings. In contrast, there was a weak substitution relationship between Internet use for daily shopping and outings. Although telework tends to be an accepted focus of Internet use under the COVID-19 outbreak, it should not be overlooked that other uses of the Internet, such as for leisure/entertainment, also supported the decline in outings.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311968

ABSTRACT

Studies have reported that many people changed their going-out behavior in response to the declaration of a state of emergency related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan. However, individual attributes of those who tended to stay home have not been examined. Therefore, this study examined the demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics of people who refrained from going out both before and after a state of emergency was declared. Using data from a nationwide online survey, this study retrospectively investigated the relative amount of time spent outside the home between mid-February and mid-May 2020. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association of time outside with demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics, and with the anxiety related to going out, in each period. Overall, respondents significantly reduced their time spent outside during the study period, especially after a state of emergency was declared. Those who were young, female, living with two or more people, had lower income, were not working, used public transportation, had chronic disease, and lived in large metropolitan areas were more likely to reduce time outside during a part of the study period. However, no significant differences were observed for occupational class, education, and neighborhood population density. Thus, the results showed a reduction in time outside during the COVID-19 outbreak and the existence of demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic differences in going-out behavior. Socioeconomic disparities and neighborhood differences in going-out behavior, and their influence on health should be continuously monitored.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310735

ABSTRACT

Facing a global epidemic of new infectious diseases such as COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), which reduce transmission rates without medical actions, are being implemented around the world to mitigate spreads. One of the problems in assessing the effects of NPIs is that different NPIs have been implemented at different times based on the situation of each country;therefore, few assumptions can be shared about how the introduction of policies affects the patient population. Mathematical models can contribute to further understanding these phenomena by obtaining analytical solutions as well as numerical simulations. In this study, an NPI was introduced into the SIR model for a conceptual study of infectious diseases under the condition that the transmission rate was reduced to a fixed value only once within a finite time duration, and its effect was analyzed numerically and theoretically. It was analytically shown that the maximum fraction of infected individuals and the final size could be larger if the intervention starts too early. The analytical results also suggested that more individuals may be infected at the peak of the second wave with a stronger intervention. This study provides quantitative relationship between the strength of a one-shot intervention and the reduction in the number of patients with no approximation. This suggests the importance of the strength and time of NPIs, although detailed studies are necessary for the implementation of NPIs in complicated real-world environments as the model used in this study is based on various simplifications.

5.
Prev Med Rep ; 24: 101640, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517434

ABSTRACT

Studies from many countries, including Japan, have reported decreased physical activity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the individual attributes as related to changes in physical activity during the pandemic in Japan have been scarcely investigated. The present study explored the relationships among individual attributes including demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics, work situation changes, perception of anxiety, and changes in walking and sedentary behaviors, during the pandemic in Japan. To obtain data indicating individual circumstances during the first wave of the pandemic in Japan, we conducted a nationwide online survey from May 19 to May 23, 2020 (n = 1,200). To observe changes in walking behavior objectively and retrospectively, we collected data on the number of daily steps as measured by the iPhone's Health application. Path analysis was employed to examine relationships between individual attributes and changes in walking and sedentary behaviors. Decreased physical activity, especially, decreased walking behavior among younger individuals and those living in highest-density neighborhoods were identified. There was increased sedentary behavior among females. Moreover, individuals with higher socioeconomic status (SES) tended to become inactive due to work-from-home/standby-at-home and individuals with lower SES tended to become inactive due to decreased amount of work. Decreased walking behavior and increased sedentary behavior were associated with a perception of strong anxiety related to the pandemic. Our findings would be helpful in considering measures to counteract health risks during the pandemic by taking into account individual backgrounds.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 3954-3962, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488125

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many recent studies have reported that the confidence of the vaccination and perceived risk were associated with vaccination intent, yet few studies have focused on other psychological factors. This study aimed to clarify the trends in COVID-19 vaccination intent and to identify the association between the 5C psychological antecedents and COVID-19 vaccination intent by sex and age in Japan. This was a longitudinal study conducted through an Internet-based survey from January 2021 to April 2021 before and after vaccine distribution in Japan, including 2,655 participants recruited by quota sampling. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they were to get vaccinated against COVID-19. In the second survey, the participants responded to questions regarding the 5C psychological antecedents: confidence, complacency, constraints (structural and psychological barriers), calculation (engagement in extensive information searching), and collective responsibility (willingness to protect others). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to clarify the association between the 5C psychological antecedents and COVID-19 vaccination intent in the second wave survey. COVID-19 vaccination intent improved from 62.1% to 72.4% after vaccine distribution, but no significant difference was found in young men. Confidence and collective responsibility were positively associated with vaccination intent, and calculation was negatively associated among all generations. COVID-19 vaccination intent may be affected not only by confidence and constraints but also by calculation and collective responsibility, and further research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 405-410, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436356

ABSTRACT

We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, as well as the frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, men: 51.0%, response rate: 89.5%), selected from June 23 to 28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place, after using the toilet, after touching something outside, before eating food, and after blowing the nose, coughing, or sneezing). Additionally, the participants responded to the number of daily hand hygiene events. The cutoff value of the total number of daily hand hygiene events to determine whether hand hygiene was performed at all 5 time points was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The mean number of hand hygiene events was 10.2 times/day. The prevalence of implementing hand hygiene at each moment ranged from 30.2% to 76.4%; only 21.1% of respondents practiced hand hygiene at all times. Both Youden Index and specificity were high when the cut-off value was 11 times/day. Therefore, the criterion of hand hygiene (≥11 times/day) may be useful in education and evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100125, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the concerns, current implementation status and correct usage, and factors inhibiting implementation and correct use of a COVID-19 contact tracing application among the ordinary citizens in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 2013 participants who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company between September 8 and 13, 2020. METHODS: Participants completed an online survey that included thoughts and concerns about the application, status of use, and questions about whether the application was being used correctly. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to clarify the association between the use of the app and sociodemographic factors and user concerns. RESULTS: Of the 2013 respondents, 429 (21.3%) participants reported using this application, but only 60.8% of them used it correctly. The percentage of those having some concerns about the application ranged from 45.9% to 75.5%, with the highest percentage being 'doubts about effectiveness of apps for preventing spread of infection'. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed, the main concerns inhibiting application use were insufficient knowledge of how to use it, privacy concerns, doubts about the effectiveness of the app, and concerns about battery consumption and communication costs. Additionally, the prevalence of the application was lower for lower-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that income may create inequalities in the efficacy and effectiveness of COVID-19 contact tracing applications. Awareness activity strategies to dispel such concerns and support low-income individuals may be needed.

9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26293, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors and physical activity are likely to be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, and sedentary lifestyles can increase subjective fatigue. The nonpharmaceutical policies imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may also have adverse effects on fatigue. OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: to examine the changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity of company workers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and to examine relationships between changes in these sedentary behaviors and physical activity and changes in fatigue. METHODS: Data from a nationwide prospective online survey conducted in 2019 and 2020 were used. On February 22, 2019, an email with a link to participate in the study was sent to 45,659 workers, aged 20 to 59 years, who were randomly selected from a database of approximately 1 million individuals. A total of 2466 and 1318 participants, who self-reported their occupation as company workers, answered the baseline and follow-up surveys, respectively. Surveys captured fatigue, workday and daily domain-specific sedentary behaviors and physical activity, and total sedentary behaviors and physical activity. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations of changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity with changes in fatigue. RESULTS: Increases in public transportation sitting during workdays, other leisure sitting time during workdays, and other leisure sitting time were associated with an increase in the motivation aspect of fatigue (b=0.29, 95% CI 0-0.57, P=.048; b=0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.62, P<.001; and b=0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.45, P=.007, respectively). Increases in work-related sitting time during workdays, total sitting time during workdays, and total work-related sitting time were significantly associated with an increase in the physical activity aspect of fatigue (b=0.06, 95% CI 0-0.12, P=.03; b=0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.09, P=.02; and b=0.07, 95% CI 0-0.14, P=.04, respectively). The motivation and physical activity aspects of fatigue increased by 0.06 for each 1-hour increase in total sitting time between baseline and follow-up (b=0.06, 95% CI 0-0.11, P=.045; and b=0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, P=.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that sedentary and active behaviors among company workers in Japan were negatively affected during the COVID-19 outbreak. Increases in several domain-specific sedentary behaviors also contributed to unfavorable changes in workers' fatigue. Social distancing and teleworking amid a pandemic may contribute to the sedentary lifestyle of company workers. Public health interventions are needed to mitigate the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemics on sedentary and physical activity behaviors and fatigue among company workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise/physiology , Fatigue/psychology , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Female , Humans , Internet , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
10.
J Epidemiol ; 31(6): 387-391, 2021 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic spread, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency on April 7, 2020 for seven prefectures, and on April 16, 2020 for all prefectures. The Japanese Prime Minister and governors requested people to adopt self-restraint behaviors, including working from home and refraining from visiting nightlife spots. However, the effectiveness of the mobility change due to such requests in reducing the spread of COVID-19 has been little investigated. The present study examined the association of the mobility change in working, nightlife, and residential places and the COVID-19 outbreaks in Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya metropolitan areas in Japan. METHODS: First, we calculated the daily mobility change in working, nightlife, and residential places compared to the mobility before the outbreak using mobile device data. Second, we estimated the sensitivity of mobility changes to the reproduction number by generalized least squares. RESULTS: Mobility change had already started in March, 2020. However, mobility reduction in nightlife places was particularly significant due to the state of emergency declaration. Although the mobility in each place type was associated with the COVID-19 outbreak, the mobility changes in nightlife places were more significantly associated with the outbreak than those in the other place types. There were regional differences in intensity of sensitivity among each metropolitan area. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated the effectiveness of the mobility changes, particularly in nightlife places, in reducing the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone , Communicable Disease Control , Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/trends
11.
J Affect Disord ; 287: 89-95, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate an urgent need to take action against mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the association between larger-scale environmental factors such as living conditions and mental health problems during the pandemic is currently unknown. METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional internet survey was conducted in Japan between August and September 2020 to examine the association between urbanization level and neighborhood deprivation as living conditions and COVID-19 case numbers by prefecture. Prevalence ratios (PRs) for severe psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and new-onset suicidal ideation during the pandemic were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 24,819 responses analyzed, the prevalence of mental health problems was 9.2% for severe psychological distress and 3.6% for new-onset suicidal ideation. PRs for severe psychological distress were significantly associated with higher urbanization level (highest PR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.56). PRs for new-onset suicidal ideation were significantly associated with higher urbanization level (highest PR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.37-2.45) and greater neighborhood deprivation (highest PR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.06-1.72). Severe psychological distress and new-onset suicidal ideation were significantly more prevalent when there was higher urbanization plus lower neighborhood deprivation (PR = 1.34 [1.15-1.56], and 1.57 [1.22-2.03], respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that it is not the number of COVID-19 cases by residence area but higher urbanization level and greater neighborhood deprivation (lower neighborhood-level socioeconomic status) that are associated with severe psychological distress and new-onset suicidal ideation during the pandemic. These findings differ in part from evidence obtained before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Urbanization
12.
Transp Res Interdiscip Perspect ; 10: 100343, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129207

ABSTRACT

Following the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Japanese government announced the declaration of a state of emergency in April 2020, which aimed to decrease contact between people and requested that residents refrain from outings. Even in the absence of penalties, outings decreased under the declaration. We are interested in how outings declined and studied the substitution relationship between Internet use and outings. A web-based survey was conducted to collect data on Internet use and outings in a retrospective manner. The period covered by our data is from mid-February to mid-May 2020. Multilevel analysis and binomial logistic regression analysis were performed to examine the relationship between Internet use and outings. The results clearly show that Internet use replaced outings. In particular, Internet use for socializing, exercise, and leisure/entertainment had a strong substitution relationship with outings. Internet use for socializing and leisure/entertainment was also associated with refraining from visiting restaurants. In contrast, there was a weak substitution relationship between Internet use for daily shopping and outings. Although telework tends to be an accepted focus of Internet use under the COVID-19 outbreak, it should not be overlooked that other uses of the Internet, such as for leisure/entertainment, also supported the decline in outings.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125918

ABSTRACT

Vaccination could be a key protective measure against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it is important to understand the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among the general public. However, there is no study on the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Japan. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy situation in Japan and assess the factors associated with such issues. This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 2956 people. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they were to get vaccinated for COVID-19. In addition, the participants responded to questions regarding sociodemographic factors, attitudes, and beliefs regarding COVID-19 infection and vaccination. The proportion of participants with a high likelihood of getting a COVID-19 vaccine was 62.1%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vaccine acceptance was lower among several sociodemographic groups, such as women, adults aged 20-49 years, and those with a low-income level. Several psychological factors, especially the perceived effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine, and willingness to protect others by getting oneself vaccinated, were associated with vaccine acceptance. Our results indicate that the perceived effectiveness of the vaccine and willingness to protect others may play an important role in the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.

14.
Sustainability ; 13(2):939, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1032408

ABSTRACT

Background - Several non-pharmaceutical policies, which include stay-at-home orders, mobility restrictions, and quarantine, have been implemented to reduce the spread of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study examines work style changes among company workers after COVID-19 and analyses their effects on workers’domain-specific sedentary and active behaviours. Methods - We analysed data from a nationwide prospective online survey in Japan. The data were obtained in February 2019 (n = 3200) and in July 2020 (n = 1709) from the registered individuals of a Japanese internet research service company. The participants reported work style patterns before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 in the follow-up survey. Domain-specific sedentary behaviours and physical activities were assessed by questionnaires. Paired t-tests were used to compare work styles before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations between changes in work style and changes in sedentary behaviours and physical activities. Results. Workers had more working from home days and fewer office-based working days after the outbreak of COVID-19 (p <0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). The increase in the number of working from home days per week was significantly associated with increases in work-related sitting time and total sitting time (b = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08, 0.24, p <0.001 and b = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11, 0.36, p <0.001, respectively). However, it was also associated with a decrease in car sitting time (b = −0.04, 95% CI −0.06, -0.01, p <0.001). In addition, the increase in the number of working from home days was associated with a decrease in work-related moderate physical activity (b=−0.06, 95% CI −0.10, −0.02, p <0.001). Conclusions. Our study provided preliminary evidence of an increase in working from home days in response to COVID-19 in Japan and of how this increase in the number of working from home days has affected workers’sedentary behaviours and physical activities. These findings shed light on the effects of COVID-19 on work styles and workers’sedentary behaviours and physical activity.

15.
Prev Med Rep ; 21: 101306, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009797

ABSTRACT

Studies have reported that many people changed their going-out behavior in response to the declaration of a state of emergency related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan. However, individual attributes of those who tended to stay home have not been examined. Therefore, this study examined the demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics of people who refrained from going out both before and after a state of emergency was declared. Using data from a nationwide online survey, this study retrospectively investigated the relative amount of time spent outside the home between mid-February and mid-May 2020. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association of time outside with demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics, and with the anxiety related to going out, in each period. Overall, respondents significantly reduced their time spent outside during the study period, especially after a state of emergency was declared. Those who were young, female, living with two or more people, had lower income, were not working, used public transportation, had chronic disease, and lived in large metropolitan areas were more likely to reduce time outside during a part of the study period. However, no significant differences were observed for occupational class, education, and neighborhood population density. Thus, the results showed a reduction in time outside during the COVID-19 outbreak and the existence of demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic differences in going-out behavior. Socioeconomic disparities and neighborhood differences in going-out behavior, and their influence on health should be continuously monitored.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750677

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks by healthy individuals for prevention has been attracting public attention. However, efficacy depends on proper usage. We set out to determine the prevalence of wearing masks to prevent COVID-19 and compliance with appropriate measures for the correct use of face masks among the general public in Japan where wearing medical masks is a "cultural" normality. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet-based survey completed by 2141 people (50.8% men, aged 20-79 years) who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company between 1 April and 6 April 2020. Participants were asked to indicate how often they wore masks for prevention and to what extent they practiced appropriate measures suggested by the World Health Organization. The prevalence of wearing masks was 80.9% and compliance rates with appropriate measures ranged from 38.3% to 83.5%. Only 23.1% complied with all recommendations. Compliance rates were overall low in men and persons with low household incomes. Our results, hence show that many citizens implement inaccurate measures when using face masks. Therefore, providing guidance on correct usage is essential when encouraging the use of face masks to prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Failure , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Trop Med Health ; 48: 63, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-isolation is an important personal protective measure in inhibiting the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as people carry out economic and social activities amid its spread. Yet few studies have clarified the actual implementation status of self-isolation during an outbreak. This study aimed to reveal the actual implementation of self-isolation among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 outbreak and the factors inhibiting this measure. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 1,226 workers (60.0% men) living in 7 prefectures (i.e., Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma) who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company, between May 12 and 17, 2020. Participants were asked whether they had experienced fever or other cold symptoms between February 17, 2020 and the date of the survey. Those who responded affirmatively were asked where they had visited (e.g., hospital, work, and shopping for groceries or necessities) to clarify whether they had left the house within 7 days after symptom onset. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to clarify the relationship between going to work within 7 days after symptom onset and both sociodemographic factors and employment-related constraints. RESULTS: Of the survey participants, 82 had experienced fever or other cold symptoms (6.7%). Among these participants, 51 (62.2%) went to work within 7 days after symptom onset. A mere 17.1% practiced strict self-isolation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those living outside the metropolitan area (i.e., Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma), working as a company employee, and being unable to work from home were associated with going to work within 7 days after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of strict self-isolation among participants who experienced cold-like symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak was extremely low, and 62.2% of these participants went to work within 7 days after symptom onset. This study highlights the need for further public awareness regarding self-isolation and countermeasures against factors that obstruct it.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 371-375, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To clarify changes in the implementation of personal protective measures among ordinary Japanese citizens from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak to the community transmission phase. METHODS: This longitudinal, internet-based survey included 2141 people (50.8% men; 20-79 years). The baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted from February 25-27, 2020, and April 1-6, 2020, respectively. Participants were asked how often they implemented the five personal protective measures recommended by the World Health Organization (hand hygiene, social distancing, avoiding touching the eyes, nose and mouth, respiratory etiquette, and self-isolation) in the baseline and follow-up surveys. RESULTS: Three of the five personal protective measures' availability significantly improved during the community transmission phase compared to the early phase. Social distancing measures showed significant improvement, from 67.4% to 82.2%. However, the prevalence of avoiding touching the eyes, nose, and mouth, which had the lowest prevalence in the early phase, showed no significant improvement (approximately 60%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men and persons of low-income households made fewer improvements than women and persons of high-income households. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of personal protective measures by ordinary citizens is improving; however, there is potential for improvement, especially concerning avoiding touching eyes, nose, and mouth.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 94: 139-144, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the implementation status of personal protective measures by ordinary citizens in Japan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on internet-based survey. A total of 2400 people (50% male: 20-79 years) were selected between February 25 and 27, 2020, from registrants of an Internet research company, to complete a questionnaire. Participants were asked to indicate how often they implemented the following five personal protective measures recommended by the World Health Organization (hand hygiene, social distancing measures, avoiding touching the eyes, nose and mouth, respiratory etiquette, and self-isolation). In addition, the participants responded to questions regarding the daily frequency of hand hygiene events. RESULTS: The prevalence of the five personal protective measures ranged from 59.8% to 83.8%, with the lowest being avoiding touching the eyes, nose, and mouth. In total, 34.7% implemented all personal protective measures. The median daily hand hygiene events were 5 per day (25th percentile, 75th percentile: 3,8). CONCLUSIONS: The protective measures implemented by ordinary citizens are insufficient and further public awareness activities are required.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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