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J Diabetes Metab Disord ; : 1-4, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175280


High vaccination rates are required around the world to create herd immunity and terminate the current COVID-19 pandemic growth. With the steady rise in COVID-19 vaccine supplies, hesitancy and rejection to be vaccinated has become a problem worldwide for large vaccine coverage. Understanding the causes of vaccine avoidance or hesitancy can help to increase vaccination intentions in the general population. A number of factors contributed to increasing hesitancy. Some causes of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy include anti-vaccine myths and confusing messages about some severe side effects of few vaccines, confusion over protection levels, poor health literacy (lack of accurate knowledge about vaccines and virus), deficient legal liability from the vaccine manufacturers, political and economic intentions, mistrust and suspicion of medical companies, concern of efficacy against to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, safety concerns (elderly, people with preexisting comorbidities) and some socio-demographic factors. Urgent interventions and policies targeting the corresponding factors are needed. Recognizing obstacles to vaccine uptake helps in the development of effective solutions to solve them. Evidence-based and behaviorally guided approaches should be used to achieve high acceptance and uptake. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40200-022-01018-y.

BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1681, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009375


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related stigma has been identified as a critical issue since the beginning of the pandemic. We developed a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma, inflicted by the non-infected general population. We applied the questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma among Tehran citizens from 27 to 30 September 2020. METHODS: A preliminary questionnaire with 18 items was developed. The total score ranged from 18 to 54; a higher score indicated a higher level of COVID-19 related stigma. An expert panel assessed the face and content validity. Of 1637 randomly recruited Tehran citizens without a history of COVID-19 infection, 1064 participants consented and were interviewed by trained interviewers by phone. RESULTS: Item content validity index (I-CVI), Item content validity ratio (I-CVR), and Item face validity index (I-FVI) were higher than 0.78 for all 18 items. The content and face validity were established with a scale content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.90 and a scale face validity index (S-CVI) of 93.9%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire with 18 items was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.625. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five latent variables, including "blaming", "social discrimination", "dishonor label", "interpersonal contact", and "retribution and requital attitude". The median of the stigma score was 24 [25th percentile: 22, 75the percentile: 28]. A large majority (86.8%) of participants reported a low level of stigma with a score below 31. None of the participants showed a high level of stigma with a score above 43. We found that the higher the educational level the lower the participant's stigma score. CONCLUSION: We found a low level of stigmatizing thoughts and behavior among the non-infected general population in Tehran, which may be due to the social desirability effect, to the widespread nature of COVID-19, or to the adaptation to sociocultural diversity of the large city.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires