Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
2.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(1): 20-29, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603559

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent advances in vaccination against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic have brought allergists and dermatologists to the forefront because both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Objective: This literature review focused on delayed reactions to vaccines, including possible causative agents and practical information on how to diagnose, evaluate with patch testing, and manage subsequent dose administration. Methods: Currently published reviews and case reports in PubMed, along with data on vaccines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web site. Relevant case reports and reviews that focused on delayed reactions to vaccines were selected. Results: Most delayed hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines include cutaneous manifestations, which vary from local persistent pruritic nodules to systemic rashes. The onset is usually within a few days but can be delayed by weeks. Multiple excipients have been identified that have been implicated in delayed vaccine reactions, including thimerosal, formaldehyde, aluminum, antibiotics, and gelatin. Treatment with antihistamines, topical corticosteroids, or systemic corticosteroids alleviates symptoms in most patients. Such reactions are generally not contraindications to future vaccination. However, for more-severe reactions, patch testing for causative agents can be used to aid in diagnosis and approach further vaccination. Conclusion: Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines are not uncommon. If needed, patch testing can be used to confirm agents, including antibiotics, formaldehyde, thimerosal, and aluminum. In most cases, delayed cutaneous reactions are not contraindications to further vaccine administration.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3546-3567, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275424

ABSTRACT

Concerns for anaphylaxis may hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunization efforts. We convened a multidisciplinary group of international experts in anaphylaxis composed of allergy, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and front-line clinicians to systematically develop recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immediate allergic reactions. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, the World Health Organizstion (WHO) global coronavirus database, and the gray literature (inception, March 19, 2021) were systematically searched. Paired reviewers independently selected studies addressing anaphylaxis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate allergy, and accuracy of allergy testing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allergy. Random effects models synthesized the data to inform recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, agreed upon using a modified Delphi panel. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anaphylaxis is 7.91 cases per million (n = 41,000,000 vaccinations; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.02-15.59; 26 studies, moderate certainty), the incidence of 0.15 cases per million patient-years (95% CI 0.11-0.2), and the sensitivity for PEG skin testing is poor, although specificity is high (15 studies, very low certainty). We recommend vaccination over either no vaccination or performing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient screening allergy testing for individuals without history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient, and a shared decision-making paradigm in consultation with an allergy specialist for individuals with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient. We recommend further research to clarify SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/vaccine excipient testing utility in individuals potentially allergic to SARS-CoV2 vaccines or their excipients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Consensus , GRADE Approach , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(5): 1579-1593, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126895

ABSTRACT

Health disparities are health differences linked with economic, social, and environmental disadvantage. They adversely affect groups that have systematically experienced greater social or economic obstacles to health. Renewed efforts are needed to reduced health disparities in the United States, highlighted by the disparate impact on racial minorities during the coronavirus pandemic. Institutional or systemic patterns of racism are promoted and legitimated through accepted societal standards, and organizational processes within the field of medicine, and contribute to health disparities. Herein, we review current evidence regarding health disparities in allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, drug allergy, and primary immune deficiency disease in racial and ethnic underserved populations. Best practices to address these disparities involve addressing social determinants of health and adopting policies to improve access to specialty care and treatment for the underserved through telemedicine and community partnerships, cross-cultural provider training to reduce implicit bias, inclusion of underserved patients in research, implementation of culturally competent patient education, and recruitment and training of health care providers from underserved communities. Addressing health disparities requires a multilevel approach involving patients, health providers, local agencies, professional societies, and national governmental agencies.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Hypersensitivity/ethnology , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Humans , United States
8.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(3): 228-234, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Physician burnout and wellness are vital and current issues in medicine, including allergy and immunology. Resilience involves the ability to rebound from personal and professional adversities. Improving individual resilience can be used to combat many of these stresses. DATA SOURCES: PubMed database and the worldwide web were searched for articles on physician wellness and resilience. STUDY SELECTIONS: Peer-reviewed scholarly review articles, peer-reviewed scientific research articles, and articles from internet websites on wellness and resilience were utilized as study selections. RESULTS: Physicians deal with many occupational stresses, including bureaucratic tasks, employment change, discrimination, difficult personalities, financial issues, and retirement. Personal stresses may include marital or relationship issues, loss of a family member, and mental and physical conditions. A variety of techniques can be used to improve personal resilience. These include addressing individual mental and physical health care issues; focusing on adequate sleep, nutrition, and exercise; maintaining a positive and hopeful outlook; addressing spirituality; and adding daily humor. CONCLUSION: As we address our own wellness and improve our resilience as physicians, the healthier we become and the better we can advocate for our patients and our specialty of allergy and immunology.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Physicians/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Humans , Occupational Health
11.
Neurosurg Open ; 1(3): okaa008, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and neurovascular events, but data on outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical course and outcomes of a case series of COVID-19 patients with a variety of cerebrovascular events. METHODS: We performed a multicentric, retrospective chart review at our three academic tertiary care hospitals, and identified all COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular events requiring neuro-intensive care and/or neurosurgical consultation. RESULTS: We identified 26 patients between March 1 and May 24, 2020, of whom 12 (46%) died. The most common event was a large-vessel occlusion (LVO) in 15 patients (58%), among whom 8 died (8/15, 53%). A total of 9 LVO patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy, of whom 5 died (5/9, 56%). A total of 7 patients (27%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage. Of the remaining patients, 2 had small-vessel occlusions, 1 had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and another had a vertebral artery dissection. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome occurred in 8 patients, of whom 7 died. Mortalities had a higher D-dimer on admission (mean 20 963 ng/mL) than survivors (mean 3172 ng/mL). Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was poor among mortalities (median 7), whereas survivors had a favorable GCS at presentation (median 14) and at discharge (median 14). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may be associated with hemorrhage as well as ischemia, and prognosis appears poorer than expected-particularly among LVO cases, where outcome remained poor despite mechanical thrombectomy. However, a favorable neurological condition on admission and lower D-dimer may indicate a better outcome.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(6): 1781-1790.e3, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31017

ABSTRACT

The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused sudden and dramatic societal changes. The allergy/immunology community has quickly responded by mobilizing practice adjustments and embracing new paradigms of care to protect patients and staff from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 exposure. Social distancing is key to slowing contagion but adds to complexity of care and increases isolation and anxiety. Uncertainty exists across a new COVID-19 reality, and clinician well-being may be an underappreciated priority. Wellness incorporates mental, physical, and spiritual health to protect against burnout, which impairs both coping and caregiving abilities. Understanding the stressors that COVID-19 is placing on clinicians can assist in recognizing what is needed to return to a point of wellness. Clinicians can leverage easily accessible tools, including the Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation approach, wellness apps, mindfulness, and gratitude. Realizing early warning signs of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder is important to access safe and confidential resources. Implementing wellness strategies can improve flexibility, resilience, and outlook. Historical parallels demonstrate that perseverance is as inevitable as pandemics and that we need not navigate this unprecedented time alone.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Ambulatory Care , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Efficiency , Grief , Guilt , Health Care Rationing , Health Promotion , Health Status , Humans , Mindfulness , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Professionalism , Social Behavior , Social Media , Spirituality , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Suicide
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...