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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(4): 369-376, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the spectrum of COVID-19 in people with HIV (PWH) is critical to provide clinical guidance and risk reduction strategies. SETTING: Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic System, a US multisite clinical cohort of PWH in care. METHODS: We identified COVID-19 cases and severity (hospitalization, intensive care, and death) in a large, diverse HIV cohort during March 1, 2020-December 31, 2020. We determined predictors and relative risks of hospitalization among PWH with COVID-19, adjusted for disease risk scores. RESULTS: Of 16,056 PWH in care, 649 were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020. Case fatality was 2%; 106 (16.3%) were hospitalized, and 12 died. PWH with current CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 [aRR 2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93 to 3.71; P < 0.001] or lowest recorded CD4 count <200 cells/mm 3 (aRR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.36; P < 0.005) had greater risks of hospitalization. HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy status were not associated with hospitalization, although most of the PWH were suppressed (86%). Black PWH were 51% more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with other racial/ethnic groups (aRR 1.51; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.19; P = 0.03). Chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and increased cardiovascular and hepatic fibrosis risk scores were associated with higher hospitalization risk. PWH who were older, not on antiretroviral therapy, and with current CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 , diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were overrepresented among PWH who required intubation or died. CONCLUSIONS: PWH with CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 , and a history of CD4 count <200 cells/mm 3 , have a clear excess risk of severe COVID-19, accounting for comorbidities associated with severe outcomes. PWH with these risk factors should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination and early treatment and monitored closely for worsening illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , United States/epidemiology
2.
AIDS ; 36(8): 1095-1103, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To define the incidence of clinically detected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with HIV (PWH) in the United States and evaluate how racial and ethnic disparities, comorbidities, and HIV-related factors contribute to risk of COVID-19. DESIGN: Observational study within the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort in seven cities during 2020. METHODS: We calculated cumulative incidence rates of COVID-19 diagnosis among PWH in routine care by key characteristics including race/ethnicity, current and lowest CD4+ cell count, and geographic area. We evaluated risk factors for COVID-19 among PWH using relative risk regression models adjusted with disease risk scores. RESULTS: Among 16 056 PWH in care, of whom 44.5% were black, 12.5% were Hispanic, with a median age of 52 years (IQR 40-59), 18% had a current CD4+ cell count less than 350 cells/µl, including 7% less than 200; 95.5% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 85.6% were virologically suppressed. Overall in 2020, 649 PWH were diagnosed with COVID-19 for a rate of 4.94 cases per 100 person-years. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 2.4-fold and 1.7-fold higher in Hispanic and black PWH respectively, than non-Hispanic white PWH. In adjusted analyses, factors associated with COVID-19 included female sex, Hispanic or black identity, lowest historical CD4+ cell count less than 350 cells/µl (proxy for CD4+ nadir), current low CD4+ : CD8+ ratio, diabetes, and obesity. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the presence of structural racial inequities above and beyond medical comorbidities increased the risk of COVID-19 among PWH. PWH with immune exhaustion as evidenced by lowest historical CD4+ cell count or current low CD4+ : CD8+ ratio had greater risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Ethnicity , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(3): 249-255, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not definitively known if persons with HIV (PWH) are more likely to be SARS-CoV-2 tested or test positive than persons without HIV (PWoH). We describe SARS-CoV-2 testing and positivity in 6 large geographically and demographically diverse cohorts of PWH and PWoH in the United States. SETTING: The Corona Infectious Virus Epidemiology Team comprises 5 clinical cohorts within a health system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA; Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States, Rockville, MD; University of North Carolina Health, Chapel Hill, NC; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; and Veterans Aging Cohort Study) and 1 interval cohort (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study). METHODS: We calculated the proportion of patients SARS-CoV-2 tested and the test positivity proportion by HIV status from March 1 to December 31, 2020. RESULTS: The cohorts ranged in size from 1675 to 31,304 PWH and 1430 to 3,742,604 PWoH. The proportion of PWH who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (19.6%-40.5% across sites) was significantly higher than PWoH (14.8%-29.4%) in the clinical cohorts. However, among those tested, the proportion of patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests was comparable by HIV status; the difference in proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positivity ranged from 4.7% lower to 1.4% higher. CONCLUSIONS: Although PWH had higher testing proportions compared with PWoH, we did not find evidence of increased positivity in 6 large, diverse populations across the United States. Ongoing monitoring of testing, positivity, and COVID-19-related outcomes in PWH are needed, given availability, response, and durability of COVID-19 vaccines; emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants; and latest therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2215934, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877538

ABSTRACT

Importance: Recommendations for additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines for people with HIV (PWH) are restricted to those with advanced disease or unsuppressed HIV viral load. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection risk after vaccination among PWH is essential for informing vaccination guidelines. Objective: To estimate the rate and risk of breakthrough infections among fully vaccinated PWH and people without HIV (PWoH) in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used the Corona-Infectious-Virus Epidemiology Team (CIVET)-II (of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design [NA-ACCORD], which is part of the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS [IeDEA]), collaboration of 4 prospective, electronic health record-based cohorts from integrated health systems and academic health centers. Adult PWH who were fully vaccinated prior to June 30, 2021, were matched with PWoH on date of full vaccination, age, race and ethnicity, and sex and followed up through December 31, 2021. Exposures: HIV infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 breakthrough infections, defined as laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 diagnosis after a patient was fully vaccinated. Results: Among 113 994 patients (33 029 PWH and 80 965 PWoH), most were 55 years or older (80 017 [70%]) and male (104 967 [92%]); 47 098 (41%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 43 218 (38%) were non-Hispanic White. The rate of breakthrough infections was higher in PWH vs PWoH (55 [95% CI, 52-58] cases per 1000 person-years vs 43 [95% CI, 42-45] cases per 1000 person-years). Cumulative incidence of breakthroughs 9 months after full vaccination was low (3.8% [95% CI, 3.7%-3.9%]), albeit higher in PWH vs PWoH (4.4% vs 3.5%; log-rank P < .001; risk difference, 0.9% [95% CI, 0.6%-1.2%]) and within each vaccine type. Breakthrough infection risk was 28% higher in PWH vs PWoH (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.19-1.37]). Among PWH, younger age (<45 y vs 45-54 y), history of COVID-19, and not receiving an additional dose (aHR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.58-0.88]) were associated with increased risk of breakthrough infections. There was no association of breakthrough with HIV viral load suppression, but high CD4 count (ie, ≥500 cells/mm3) was associated with fewer breakthroughs among PWH. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, COVID-19 vaccination, especially with an additional dose, was effective against infection with SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating through December 31, 2021. PWH had an increased risk of breakthrough infections compared with PWoH. Expansion of recommendations for additional vaccine doses to all PWH should be considered.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335247

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma (CCP) was an early and widely adopted putative therapy for severe COVID-19. Results from randomized control trials and observational studies have failed to demonstrate a clear therapeutic role for CCP for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Underlying these inconclusive findings is a broad heterogeneity in the concentrations of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) between different CCP donors. The present study was designed to evaluate nAb titer threshold for clinically effective CCP. Methods We conducted a double-blind, phase 2 study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of nAb titer-defined CCP in adults admitted to an academic referral hospital. Patients positive on a SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test and with symptoms for < 10 days were eligible. Participants received either CCP with nAb titers ≥1:160-1:640 (standard titer group) or >1:640 (high titer group) in addition to standard of care treatments. Adverse events were contrasted by CCP titer. The primary clinical outcome was time to hospital discharge, with mortality and respiratory support evaluated as secondary outcomes. Findings Between August 28 and December 4, 2020, 316 participants were screened, 55 received CCP, with 41 and 14 receiving standard versus high titer CCP, respectively. Participants were a median of 61 years of age (IQR 52-67), 36% women, 25% Black and 33% Hispanic. Severe adverse events (SAE) (≥ grade 3) occurred in 4 (29%) and 23 (56%) of participants in the high versus standard titer groups, respectively by day 28 (Risk Difference -0.28 [95% CI -0.56, 0.01]). There were no observed treatment-related AEs. By day 55, time to hospital discharge was shorter among participants receiving high versus standard titer, accounting for death as a competing event (hazard ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.05, 3.58], Gray’s p=0.02). Interpretation In this phase 2 trial in a high-risk population of patients admitted for Covid-19, we found earlier time to hospital discharge and lower occurrences of life-threatening SAEs among participants receiving CCP with nAb titers >1:640 compared with participants receiving CCP with lower nAb titer CCP. Though limited by a small study size these findings support further study of high-nAb titer CCP defined as >1:640 in the treatment of COVID-19. Funding This clinical study was supported by the UNC Health Foundation and the North Carolina Policy Collaboratory at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with funding from the North Carolina Coronavirus Relief Fund established and appropriated by the North Carolina General Assembly. The laboratory assays for neutralizing antibody titers and SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody-binding assays were partially supported by The NIH NCI/NIAID SeroNet Serocenter of Excellence Award U54 CA260543. Research in Context Evidence before this study COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma (CCP) has emergency use authorization from the FDA for early treatment of COVID-19 in either outpatient or inpatient settings. Evidence supporting the use of CCP for severe COVID-19 is mixed and still emerging. One major limitation in interpreting published clinical trials and the clinical role of CCP is incomplete understanding of necessary neutralizing antibody (nAb) titer for clinically effective CCP. Observational studies suggest that higher antibody-content CCP is more effective than lower antibody-content CCP, or that very low antibody-content CCP is harmful. We searched PubMed articles published between February 1, 2020, and April 15, 2022, using the terms “COVID-19”, “convalescent plasma”, “SARS-CoV-2”, and “CCP” alone and in combination. Our search yielded 6,468 results which we filtered to 280 and 162 by selecting ‘Clinical Trial’ and ‘Randomized Controlled Trial’ article types, respectively. Among these, we identified 25 open-label or blinded efficacy or effectiveness studies in hospitalized patients that were relevant to our study. Preliminary reports show wide variability in the antib dy content of CCP used in clinical trials, the assays used to define CCP antibody content, and the estimates of clinical outcomes following CCP therapy for hospitalized patients. Only one study deliberately infused CCP with nAb > 1:640. Post-hoc analyses of potent monoclonal antibody therapy in hospitalized patients in the UK showed survival benefit when monoclonal antibody was infused to patients who had not yet seroconverted by spike antibody ELISA, suggesting that if dosed appropriately, antibody-based therapies may have a role in improving outcomes of severe COVID-19. Added value of this study This phase 2 study showed that CCP with high nAb titer (>1:640) provided more rapid recovery to hospital discharge and fewer COVID-19 attributable AEs than CCP with nAb titer between the FDA-recommended minimum standard and 4-fold higher (≥1:160-1:640). The hazard ratio of time to hospital discharge from baseline through day 55, accounting for death as a competing event, contrasting patients receiving high versus standard CCP titer was 1.94 (95% CI 1.05-3.58). Adjusted hazard ratios of high versus standard titer CCP receipt for time to hospital discharge were consistent with the primary unadjusted findings. Mortality through 55 days was lower in the high titer group, but with a wide confidence interval that did not reach statistical significance. Implications of all available evidence Our data that CCP with nAb >1:640 expedites recovery of patients admitted with COVID-19 compared with CCP with nAb ≥1:160-1:640 suggests that a threshhold of nAb ≥1:160 may be too low to define CCP as ‘high titer’. Analyses in larger CCP trials should consider full reporting of nAb in CCP units administered at individual study participant level, and specifically whether CCP contained nAb >1:640. Further investigation of CCP with nAb >1:640 is warranted given that raising the threshhold of nAb, or a correlative specific anti-spike antibody assay, used to qualify ‘high titer’ CCP in clinical trials could inform policy guidance and clinical use of CCP.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324045

ABSTRACT

Background: Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection remain incompletely understood, especially among ambulatory, non-hospitalized individuals. Objective: Identify symptom and patient factors associated with detection of SARS-CoV-2 in outpatients. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting: An outpatient testing program in North Carolina. Patients: 20,177 individuals presenting between March 16 and September 3, 2020 for nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-PCR testing. Measurements: Self-reported symptoms, demographic characteristics, and exposure and travel histories. Results: Among 20,177 tested individuals, the proportion positive was 9.4% (95% CI, 9.0-9.8) and was higher for men, younger individuals, and racial/ethnic minorities (all P<0.05);the positivity proportion was higher for Hispanics (26.9;95% CI. 24.9-29.0) compared to Blacks (8.6%;95% CI, 7.6-9.7) or Whites (5.8%;95% CI, 5.4-6.3). Individuals reporting contact with a COVID-19 case had the highest positivity proportion (22.8%;95% CI, 21.5-24.1). Among the subset of 8,522 symptomatic adults who presented for testing after May 1, when complete symptom assessments were performed, SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR was detected in 1,116 (13.1%). Of the reported symptoms, loss of taste or smell was most strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection with an adjusted risk ratio of 3.88 (95% CI, 3.46-4.35). The presence of chills, fever, cough, aches, headache, fatigue and nasal congestion also significantly increased the risk of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, while diarrhea or nausea/vomiting, although not uncommon, were significantly more common in those with a negative test result. Symptom combinations were frequent with 67.9% experiencing ≥4 symptoms, including 19.8% with ≥8 symptoms;report of greater than three symptoms increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection.Limitation: The study was conducted at a single large testing facility. Conclusion: In a large outpatient population in the Southeastern US, several symptoms, most notably loss of taste or smell, and greater symptom burden were associated with detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Persons of color and those with who were a contact of a COVID-19 case were also more likely to test positive. These findings suggest that, given limited SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity, symptom presentation and host characteristics can be used to guide testing prioritization.Funding: Research support was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) (UM1 AI-068636), the UNC Chapel Hill AIDS Clinical Trials Unit (UM1 AI069423), the UNC Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI50410), and the NA-ACCORD COVID-19 Supplement (U01 AI069918);and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institutes of Health (UL1 TR002489). This research support funded investigator effort.Declaration of Interests: There are no relevant conflicts of interest reported by the authors.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved and granted a waiver of consent by the UNC School of Medicine Institutional Review Board.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection remain incompletely understood, especially among ambulatory, non-hospitalized individuals. With host factors, symptoms predictive of SARS-CoV-2 could be used to guide testing and intervention strategies. METHODS: Between March 16 and September 3, 2020, we examined the characteristics and symptoms reported by individuals presenting to a large outpatient testing program in the Southeastern US for nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-PCR testing. Using self-reported symptoms, demographic characteristics, and exposure and travel histories, we identified the variables associated with testing positive using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 20,177 tested individuals, the proportion positive was 9.4% (95% CI, 9.0-9.8) and was higher for men, younger individuals, and racial/ethnic minorities (all P<0.05); the positivity proportion was higher for Hispanics (26.9%; 95% CI. 24.9-29.0) compared to Blacks (8.6%; 95% CI, 7.6-9.7) or Whites (5.8%; 95% CI, 5.4-6.3). Individuals reporting contact with a COVID-19 case had the highest positivity proportion (22.8%; 95% CI, 21.5-24.1). Among the subset of 8,522 symptomatic adults who presented for testing after May 1, when complete symptom assessments were performed, SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR was detected in 1,116 (13.1%). Of the reported symptoms, loss of taste or smell was most strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection with an adjusted risk ratio of 3.88 (95% CI, 3.46-4.35). The presence of chills, fever, cough, aches, headache, fatigue and nasal congestion also significantly increased the risk of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, while diarrhea or nausea/vomiting, although not uncommon, were significantly more common in those with a negative test result. Symptom combinations were frequent with 67.9% experiencing ≥4 symptoms, including 19.8% with ≥8 symptoms; report of greater than three symptoms increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. CONCLUSIONS: In a large outpatient population in the Southeastern US, several symptoms, most notably loss of taste or smell, and greater symptom burden were associated with detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Persons of color and those with who were a contact of a COVID-19 case were also more likely to test positive. These findings suggest that, given limited SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity, symptom presentation and host characteristics can be used to guide testing and intervention prioritization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Young Adult
9.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(4): 100581, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401487

ABSTRACT

The interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab became widely used early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic based on small observational studies that suggested clinical benefit in COVID-19 patients with a hyperinflammatory state. To inform our local treatment algorithms in the absence of randomized clinical trial results, we performed a rapid analysis of the first 11 hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab at our academic medical center. We report their early clinical outcomes and describe the process by which we assembled a team of diverse trainees and stakeholders to extract, analyze, and disseminate data during a time of clinical uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Decision-Making , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Uncertainty
10.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0027521, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371850

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now caused over 2 million deaths worldwide and continues to expand. Currently, much is unknown about functionally neutralizing human antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 months after infection or the reason for the discrepancy in COVID-19 disease and sex. Using convalescent-phase sera collected from 101 COVID-19-recovered individuals 21 to 212 days after symptom onset with 48 additional longitudinal samples, we measured functionality and durability of serum antibodies. We also evaluated associations of individual demographic and clinical parameters with functional neutralizing antibody responses to COVID-19. We found robust antibody durability out to 6 months, as well as significant positive associations with the magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response and male sex and in individuals with cardiometabolic comorbidities. IMPORTANCE In this study, we found that neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals vary in magnitude but are durable and correlate well with receptor binding domain (RBD) Ig binding antibody levels compared to other SARS-CoV-2 antigen responses. In our cohort, higher neutralizing antibody titers are independently and significantly associated with male sex compared to female sex. We also show for the first time that higher convalescent antibody titers in male donors are associated with increased age and symptom grade. Furthermore, cardiometabolic comorbidities are associated with higher antibody titers independently of sex. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of serologic, demographic, and clinical correlates of functional antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 which supports the growing literature on sex discrepancies regarding COVID-19 disease morbidity and mortality, as well as functional neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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