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J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084


BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.

African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
Applied Sciences ; 11(6):2466, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1125680


The emergence of COVID-19 progressed into a global pandemic that has functionally put the world at a standstill and catapulted major healthcare systems into an overburdened state. The dire need for therapeutic strategies to mitigate and successfully treat COVID-19 is now a public health crisis with national security implications for many countries. The current study employed Bayesian networks to a longitudinal proteomic dataset generated from Caco-2 cells transfected with SARS-CoV-2 (isolated from patients returning from Wuhan to Frankfurt). Two different approaches were employed to assess the Bayesian models, a titer-center topology analysis and a drug signature enrichment analysis. Topology analysis identified a set of proteins directly linked to the SAR-CoV2 titer, including ACE2, a SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor, MAOB and CHECK1. Aligning with the topology analysis, MAOB and CHECK1 were also identified within the enriched drug-signatures. Taken together, the data output from this network has identified nodal host proteins that may be connected to 18 chemical compounds, some already marketed, which provides an immediate opportunity to rapidly triage these assets for safety and efficacy against COVID-19.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 973-980, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754115


RATIONALE: Hypertension, obesity and diabetes are major risk factors associated with morbidities underlying COVID-19 infections. Regression analysis correlated presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Furthermore, COVID-19 prevalence correlated to allele frequency of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) deletion (D) polymorphism within the European population. OBJECTIVE: Homozygous ACE deletion polymorphism is associated with increase in ACE and angiotensin II (Ang-II), sustained levels can result in inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. The ACE DD polymorphism is also associated with hypertension, acute respiratory distress and diabetic nephropathy, all considered high risk for COVID-19 infection and outcomes. The study objective was to describe a biological framework associating ethnic prevalence of ACE deletion polymorphism to COVID-19 comorbidities providing rationale for therapeutic utility of ACE-I/ARBs to improve outcomes. METHOD AND RESULTS: The Allele Frequency Database (ALFRED) was queried for frequency of rs4646994 representing ACE I/D polymorphism. In a total of 349 worldwide population samples, frequency of ACE D allele was higher in European, Asian, and Africans cohorts. In the USA, the frequency of ACE D allele was higher in non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White and Mexican Americans. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 binding mediated reduction/inactivation of ACE-II can increase ACE/Ang-II signalling pathway and related pathologies. The presence of ACE DD polymorphism with COVID-19 infection likely augments ACE/Ang-II activities, increasing severity of COVID-19 morbidities and impacts outcomes. Thus, ethnic prevalence of ACE DD polymorphism can explain in part the severity of COVID-19 morbidity providing rationale for the use of ACE-I/ARBs to improve outcomes.

COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , Risk Factors