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1.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
2.
Front Genet ; 11: 612571, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094163

ABSTRACT

Genomic sequencing has played a major role in understanding the pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the current pandemic, it is essential that SARS-CoV-2 viruses are sequenced regularly to determine mutations and genomic modifications in different geographical locations. In this study, we sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from five clinical samples obtained in Oklahoma, United States during different time points of pandemic presence in the state. One sample from the initial days of the pandemic in the state and four during the peak in Oklahoma were sequenced. Previously reported mutations including D614G in S gene, P4715L in ORF1ab, S194L, R203K, and G204R in N gene were identified in the genomes sequenced in this study. Possible novel mutations were also detected in the S gene (G1167V), ORF1ab (A6269S and P3371S), ORF7b (T28I), and ORF8 (G96R). Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes showed similarity to other SARS-CoV-2 viruses reported from across the globe. Structural characterization indicates that the mutations in S gene possibly influences conformational flexibility and motion of the spike protein, and the mutations in N gene are associated with disordered linker region within the nucleocapsid protein.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20195420

ABSTRACT

Genomic sequencing has played a major role in understanding the pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the current pandemic, it is essential that SARS-CoV-2 viruses are sequenced regularly to determine mutations and genomic modifications in different geographical locations. In this study we sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from 5 clinical samples obtained in Oklahoma, USA during different time points of pandemic presence in the state. One sample from the initial days of the pandemic in the state and 4 during the peak in Oklahoma were sequenced. Previously reported mutations including D614G in S gene, P4715L in ORF1ab, S194L, R203K and G204R in N gene were identified in the genomes sequenced in this study. Possible novel mutations were also detected such as G1167V in S gene, A6269S and P3371S in ORF1ab, T28I in ORF7b, G96R in ORF8. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes showed similarity to viruses from across the globe. These novel mutations and phylogenetic analysis emphasize the contagious nature of the virus.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 870, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615558

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to curtail its most severe complications. Severely ill patients experience pathologic manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and clinical reports demonstrate striking neutrophilia, elevated levels of multiple cytokines, and an exaggerated inflammatory response in fatal COVID-19. Mechanical respirator devices are the most widely applied therapy for ARDS in COVID-19, yet mechanical ventilation achieves strikingly poor survival. Many patients, who recover, experience impaired cognition or physical disability. In this review, we argue the need to develop therapies aimed at inhibiting neutrophil recruitment, activation, degranulation, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release. Moreover, we suggest that currently available pharmacologic approaches should be tested as treatments for ARDS in COVID-19. In our view, targeting host-mediated immunopathology holds promise to alleviate progressive pathologic complications of ARDS and reduce morbidities and mortalities in severely ill patients with COVID-19.

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