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Georgofili ; 17:158-184, 2020.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2270153


This report describes the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the productive and economic aspects of livestock and aquaculture production in Italy, including farm management, labour, income, marketing and consumption of animal products (meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products), consumer behaviour, food safety, agrotourism and disease control.

Saudi Dent J ; 34(7): 596-603, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983982


Objective: Studies have shown that gingival crevices may be a significant route for SARS-CoV-2 entry. However, the role of oral health in the acquisition and severity of COVID-19 is not known. Design: A retrospective analysis was performed using electronic health record data from a large urban academic medical center between 12/1/2019 and 8/24/2020. A total of 387 COVID-19 positive cases were identified and matched 1:1 by age, sex, and race to 387 controls without COVID-19 diagnoses. Demographics, number of missing teeth and alveolar crestal height were determined from radiographs and medical/dental charts. In a subgroup of 107 cases and controls, we also examined the rate of change in alveolar crestal height. A conditional logistic regression model was utilized to assess association between alveolar crestal height and missing teeth with COVID-19 status and with hospitalization status among COVID-19 cases. Results: Increased alveolar bone loss, OR = 4.302 (2.510 - 7.376), fewer missing teeth, OR = 0.897 (0.835-0.965) and lack of smoking history distinguished COVID-19 cases from controls. After adjusting for time between examinations, cases with COVID-19 had greater alveolar bone loss compared to controls (0.641 ± 0.613 mm vs 0.260 ± 0.631 mm, p < 0.01.) Among cases with COVID-19, increased number of missing teeth OR = 2.1871 (1.146- 4.174) was significantly associated with hospitalization. Conclusions: Alveolar bone loss and missing teeth are positively associated with the acquisition and severity of COVID-19 disease, respectively.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880067
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1 SUPPL 1):71, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1193859


INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is prevalent in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Inadequate nutrition in critically ill patients has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The acetaminophen absorption test (AAT) has been previously described as a direct method for assessment of GI function. This study seeks to determine whether the AAT can be used to assess gastrointestinal function in critically ill COVID-19 patients, compared with traditional measures of GI function. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was performed in three ICUs. The study cohort consisted of critically ill adult COVID-19 positive patients who were receiving enteral nutrition via nasogastric tube (NGT) and had received the AAT to assess absorption. The AAT was performed by administration of 950-1000 mg of acetaminophen liquid suspension through the NGT, which was then clamped for 1 hour. The times of administration were recorded and blood samples were ordered to be drawn 90 minutes following acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen plasma levels were then measured via laboratory evaluation. The test was considered positive for absorption if the plasma acetaminophen concentration was greater than or equal to 5 mcg/mL at 90 minutes following administration. RESULTS: Among the study cohort 55% (11/20) patients had evidence of malabsorption by AAT. Interestingly, all patients with evidence of malabsorption by AAT had clinical evidence of bowel function as indicated by stool output and low gastric residuals during the prior 24 hours. When comparing patients with a detectable acetaminophen level (positive AAT) with those who had undetectable acetaminophen levels (negative AAT), radiologic evidence of ileus was less frequent (20 vs. 88%;p=0.03), tolerated tube feed rates were higher (40 vs. 10 mL/hr;p=0.01) and there was a trend towards lower gastric residual volumes (45 vs. 830 mL p=0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Malabsorption can occur in critically ill patients with COVID-19 despite commonly used clinical indicators of tube feeding tolerance. The AAT provides a simple, rapid, and cost-effective mechanism by which enteral function can be efficiently assessed in order to optimize nutritional status in this patient population.