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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against COVID-19 is the key to controlling the pandemic. Parents are the decision makers in the case of children vaccination as they are responsible for them. This study aims to investigate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination for children among parents in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used an online self-administered questionnaire. A 35-items questionnaire was distributed via social media platforms between June 6 and July 9-2021. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the participants' characteristics. Categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. Predictors of vaccination acceptance were identified using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 581 parents were involved in this study. A majority of parents 63.9% reported that they will vaccinate their children if the vaccine becomes available. Around 40% of them confirmed that they want their child to be among the first to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Nearly a quarter, 23.9%, reported that they will vaccinate their child against influenza this year. The most commonly reported reason for hesitancy was poor awareness about the vaccine's effectiveness on children. Adequate information about the COVID-19 vaccine was the most agreed cause to accept the vaccine. Having five or more children was a significant predictor for poor vaccination acceptance (OR: 0.42 (95%CI: 0.21-0.86), p < .05). CONCLUSION: An appropriate proportion of parents are willing to vaccinate their children if the vaccine becomes available for children in Saudi Arabia. Public health awareness must be raised to gain public trust in the vaccination and the healthcare system.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental distress among university students in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted between 12th of June and the 4th of August 2021 in Jordan to measure student mental stress using Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). RESULTS: A total of 1063 university students participated in the study. One-third of the participating students reported that they had a history of COVID-19 infection. More than half of the participating university students (65.7%) were found to have mental distress (measured symptomatically by the SRQ-20 with a score of eight or more). The average mental distress score was 9.8 (SD: 5.5) out of 20. Female students, students from non-medical colleges, students in their last years of study, students with chronic diseases and those with low income were associated with high levels of mental distress (p < 0.05). With regards to social support, a moderate level of social support was received from three sources: persons considered as significant others, family members, and friends. The average social support score for the participating university students was 41.9 (SD: 10.3) out of 60 (equivalent to 69.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental distress is prevalent among university students in Jordan. There is a need for evidence-based governmental strategies and interventions that provide social support at universities such as self-help measures and professional mental health services as part of student health services that would be helpful to reduce the burden of mental distress of students and promote the mission of the integration of mental health in all university policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may be at high risk for thrombotic complications due to excess inflammatory response and stasis of blood flow. This study aims to assess the incidence of pulmonary embolism among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, risk factors, and the impact on survival. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Saudi Arabia between 15 March 2020 and 15 June 2020. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by Computed Tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) formed the case group. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and without confirmed diagnose of pulmonary embolism formed the control group. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of pulmonary embolism and survival. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients participated were included in the study, of which 51 were the cases (patients with pulmonary embolism) and 108 patients formed the control group (patients without pulmonary embolism). The incidence of PE among those hospitalized was around 32%. Smoking history, low level of oxygen saturation, and higher D-dimer values were important risk factors that were associated with a higher risk of developing PE (p < 0.05). Higher respiratory rate was associated with higher odds of death, and decreased the possibility of survival among hospitalized patients with PE. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary embolism is common among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Preventive measures should be considered for hospitalized patients with smoking history, low level of oxygen saturation, high D-dimer values, and high respiratory rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Incidence , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302250

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of the general public in the Middle Eastern countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted between the 19th of March and the 6th of April 2020 in three Middle Eastern countries (Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait) to explore the knowledge and practices of the Middle Eastern population regarding COVID-19. A previously developed questionnaire was adapted and used for this study. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of COVID-19 knowledge. Results: A total of 1208 participants (members of the public) participated from the three countries (Jordan = 389, Saudi Arabia = 433, and Kuwait = 386). The majority of participants (n = 810, 67.2%) were females aged 30 to 49 years (n = 501, 41.5%). Participants had moderate overall COVID-19 knowledge, with a mean (SD) score of 7.93 (±1.72) out of 12 (66.1%). Participants had better knowledge about disease prevention and control (83.0%), whereas the lowest sub-scale scores were for questions about disease transmission routes (43.3%). High education level was an important predictor of greater COVID-19 knowledge scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Further public education is needed to address the relatively low level of education regarding the transmission of COVID-19 in the Middle Eastern countries. Policymakers are recommended to develop informative COVID-19 related campaigns that specifically target young people (university students), unemployed individuals, and those with lower levels of education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Jordan , Kuwait/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247864

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 share similar characteristics. For instance, the genetic homology of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is 80% and 50%, respectively, which may cause similar clinical features. Moreover, uncontrolled release of proinflammatory mediators (also called a cytokine storm) by activated immune cells in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 patients leads to severe phenotype development. Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine profile associated with three strains of severe human coronavirus diseases (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). Method: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published until July 2020. Randomized and observational studies reporting the inflammatory cytokines associated with severe and non-severe human coronavirus diseases, including MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, were included. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval to estimate the pooled mean of inflammatory biomarkers. Results: A high level of circulating IL-6 could be associated with the severity of infection of the three coronavirus strains. TNF, IL-10, and IL-8 are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Increased circulating levels of CXCL10/IP10 and CCL2/MCP-1 might also be related to the severity of MERS. Conclusion: This study suggests that the immune response and immunopathology in the three severe human coronavirus strains are somewhat similar. The findings highlight that nearly all studies reporting severe cases of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 have been associated with elevated levels of IL-6. This could be used as a potential therapeutic target to improve patients' outcomes in severe cases. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration 94 number: CRD42020209931.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Animals , Blood Circulation , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05009, 2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197655

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses represent the major proportion of frontline health care professionals delivering 24/7 services to patients with an increased vulnerability towards COVID-19 infection. Mental health issues among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic are poorly reported across the globe. Henceforth, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to explore the prevalence and determinants of mental health outcomes (anxiety, stress, depression, PTSD, insomnia) among nurses across the globe due to the COVID-19. Methods: A PRISMA compliant systematic review (PROSPERO-CRD 42020204120) was carried out to identify articles from multiple databases reporting the prevalence of mental health outcomes among nurses. Proportion random effect analysis, I2 statistic, quality assessment, and sensitivity analysis were carried out. Results: Pooled data on mental health outcomes were generated from 25 cross-sectional studies: 32% anxiety (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21%-44%, n (number of studies) = 21, N (sample size) = 13 641), 40.6% stress (95% CI = 25.4%-56.8%, n = 10, N = 4204), 32% depression (95% CI = 21%-44%, n = 17, N = 12 294), 18.6% PTSD (95% CI = 4.8%-38%, n = 3, N = 638), 38.3% insomnia (95% CI = 5.8%-78.6%, n = 2, N = 261) and significant risk factors for mental ailments includes; caring for COVID-19 patients, being a female, low self-efficacy, resilience, social support and having physical symptoms (sore-throat, breathlessness, cough, lethargy, myalgia, fever). Conclusion: The study results highlighted a higher proportion of poor mental health outcomes namely, anxiety, stress, depression, PTSD and insomnia among nurses from different parts of the world. Poor mental health outcomes among nurses warrants the need to implement proactive psychological interventions to deter the collapse of health care systems in responding to the pandemic and in particular all possible efforts should be undertaken to mitigate the risk factors. Health care organizations should provide support to nurses with sufficient flexibility. The disaster preparedness plan envisaged by nations should have provisions to address the mental health of nurses. Greater investment in addressing the global shortage of nurses should be given priority in national health policies. Attractive salary packages should be offered to nurses to prevent their emigration from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020204120).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
7.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 839-852, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197454

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is a major strain on health and economic systems, with rapidly increasing demand for in patients' facilities. Disease diagnosis and estimating patients at higher risk is important for the optimal management during the pandemic. This study aimed to identify the predictors of mortality and length of hospital stay in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2020 and August 2020 at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. All patients who were admitted and had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe patients' demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Multiple logistic/linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of death and length of stay at the hospital. Results: A total of 706 patients were hospitalised for COVID-19. The mean age was 48.0 years (SD: 15.6 years). More than half of the patients (68.5%; n= 292) were males. The median duration of stay at the hospital was 6.0 days (IQR: 300-10:00). The prevalence rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among the patients was 3.0% (n= 21). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (AOR: 1.05; 1.02-1.09), patients with end-stage renal disease (AOR: 6.44; 2.20-18.87), low Oxygen saturation SPO2 (AOR: 9.92; 4.19-23.50), D.dimer >0.5 (AOR: 13.31; 5.45-32.49), ESR>10 mm/h (AOR: 4.08; 1.72-9.68), Ferritin>400mcg/L (AOR: 18.55; 6.89-49.96), and Procalcitonin>0.5ug/L (AOR: 8.23; 1.81- 37.40) were associated with a higher risk of death among patients with COVID-19. Patients with VTE (AOR: 12.86; 3.07- 53.92) were at higher risk of death due to COVID-19. Conclusion: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients have multiple negative consequences in terms of their laboratory findings, signs and symptoms. Age and end-stage renal diseases have a significant impact on the mortality rate and the length of hospital stay among COVID-19 patients.

8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14244, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194124

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The emergence of the COVID-19 global pandemic, with a high transmission and mortality rate, has created an extraordinary crisis worldwide. Such an unusual situation may have an undesirable impact on the mental health of individuals which, in turn, may influence their outcomes. This study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological disposition of residents of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia between 27 March and 27 April 2020. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were used to assess depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of these. RESULTS: A total of 2081 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among the study participants was 9.4% and 7.3% respectively. Non-Saudi residents, individuals aged 50 years and above, divorced people, retired people, university students and those with an income between 2000 and 10 000 SR were at higher risk of developing depression. Saudi individuals, married people, the unemployed and those with a high income (>10 000 RS) were at higher risk of developing anxiety. CONCLUSION: We found that there is a wide range of Saudi residents who are at higher risk of developing mental illness during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and mental healthcare providers are advised to provide continuous monitoring of the psychological consequences during this pandemic and provide the required health support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health status of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and undergraduate students in the health sciences center (HSCUs). In addition, it explored the factors associated with the increased levels of mental health burden among the study population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using two online-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7), which were distributed in parallel to HCPs and HSCUs in Kuwait. These instruments are validated assessment scales to assess mental health status: depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7). Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS- version 25. RESULTS: A total of 857 individuals (559 HCPs and 298 HSCUs) participated in this study. The prevalence of moderately severe depression or severe depression (PHQ-9 total score of ≥15) among respondents was 66.6%. The median (interquartile range, IQR) PHQ-9 score was significantly higher among HSCUs (20 {11.5}) compared to HCPs (17 {8}). The prevalence of severe anxiety (GAD-7 total score of ≥15) among respondents was 36.7%. There were no significant differences between the median (IQR) GAD-7 scores among the HCPs (14 {7}) and HSCUs (13 {8}). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that three variables were significantly and independently associated with severe depression among HCPs. The prevalence of severe depression was found to be greater among females compared to males. In addition, it was significantly lower among those who were aged ≥50 years, and those who reported that they were not in direct contact with COVID-19 patients. Among HSCUs, females showed greater depression than males. In contrast, those aged >29 years and who had no history of chronic disease showed lower depression compared to their counterparts in the 18-29 years age group and who had a chronic disease history. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on the mental health of HCPs and HSCUs in Kuwait. This highlights the need for proactive efforts to support their mental health and well-being through educational campaigns and psychological support programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020966631, 2020 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social relationships refer to the existing associations between family members, friends, neighbours, co-workers, and other associates. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing has been imposed by the curfew program in Jordan. AIM: To evaluate the effects of social distancing on the social relationships of the Jordanian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted in Jordan between the 6th and the 30th of May, 2020. Our questionnaire was constructed to explore the population's perception of the quarantine period, how it is affecting their relationship with others, and the characteristics of their social relationships and communication with various population categories, including family members and work colleagues. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of better social relationships and communication. RESULTS: A total of 4,301 participants were involved in this study. The average score of the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on social relationships among the whole study population was 5.68 (SD: 2.33) out of 10 (equal to 56.8%), which indicates the marginal strength of the social relationships. Around 31.6% of the participants reported that their social relationships were affected to a high degree by the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants who were aged 36-45 were positively affected in terms of their social relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is negatively affecting social relationships, which could ultimately lead to negative health implications. Decision-makers are advised to provide educational campaigns that improve the sociological health of the general population.

11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 506, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842890

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Considering the transmissible nature of COVID-19 it is important to explore the trend of the epidemiology of the disease in each country and act accordingly. This study aimed to examine the trend of COVID-19 epidemiology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in term of its incidence rate, recovery rate, and mortality rate. Material and Methods: We conducted an observational study using publicly available national data taken from the Saudi Ministry of Health for the period between 3 March and 7 June 2020. The number of newly confirmed cases, active cases, critical cases, percentage of cases stratified by age group [adults, children, and elderly] and gender were extracted from the reports of the Saudi Ministry of Health. Results: During the study period, the total number of confirmed cases with COVID-19 rose from one on 2 March 2020 to 101,914 on 7 June, representing an average of 1,039 new cases per day, [trend test, p < 0.000]. Despite the increase in the number of newly confirmed daily cases of COVID-19, the number of reported daily active cases started to stabilize after 2 months from the start of the pandemic in the country and the overall recovery rate was 71.4%. The mortality rate decreased by 6.4% during the study period. COVID-19 was more common among adults and males compared to other demographic groups. Conclusion: The epidemiological status of COVID-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia showing promising improvement. Males and adults accounted for the majority of COVID-19 cases in the KSA. Further studies are recommended to be conducted at the patient level to identify other patient groups who are at higher risk of getting infected with COVID-19, and for whom the best pharmacological intervention could be provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Child , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237130, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly spreading global pandemic. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 have been reported; however, there is limited research investigating the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in the Middle East. This study aims to investigate the clinical, radiological and therapeutic characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID19 in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study is a retrospective single-centre case series study. We extracted data for patients who were admitted to the Al-Noor Specialist Hospital with a PCR confirming SARS-COV-2 between 12th and 31st of March 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to describe patients' characteristics. Continuous data were reported as mean ± SD. Chi-squared test/Fisher test were used as appropriate to compare proportions for categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were hospitalised for COVID-19 during the study period. The mean age was 46.1 years (SD: 15.3 years). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (28.8%, n = 42) and diabetes mellitus (26.0%, n = 38). Regarding the severity of the hospitalised patients, 105 patients (70.0%) were mild, 29 (19.3%) were moderate, and 16 patients (10.7%) were severe or required ICU care. CONCLUSION: This case series provides clinical, radiological and therapeutic characteristics of hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/diagnostic imaging
13.
Brain Behav ; 10(8): e01730, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 global pandemic coupled with high transmission rate and mortality has created an unprecedented state of emergency worldwide. This global situation may have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of individuals which in turn impacts individuals' performance. This study aims to explore the prevalence of depression and anxiety among the GP, HCPs, and USs during COVID-19 outbreak, and to identify key population(s) who might need psychological intervention. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted in Jordan between 22 and 28 March 2020 to explore the mental health status (depression and anxiety) of the general population, healthcare professionals, and university students during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were used to assess depression and anxiety among the study participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression and anxiety among the entire study participants was 23.8% and 13.1%, respectively. Anxiety was most prevalent across university students 21.5%, followed by healthcare professionals 11.3%, and general population 8.8%. Females among healthcare professionals and university students, divorced healthcare professionals, pulmonologists, and university students with history of chronic disease were at higher risk of developing depression. Females, divorced participants among the general population, and university students with history of chronic disease and those with high income (≥1,500 JD) were at higher risk of developing anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: During outbreaks, individuals are put under extreme stressful condition resulting in higher risk of developing anxiety and depression particularly for students and healthcare professionals. Policymakers and mental healthcare providers are advised to provide further mental support to these vulnerable groups during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Students/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
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