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J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(12): 2839, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935039
Cureus ; 12(10): e10923, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895708


Background The current pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global health challenge. Pulmonary dysfunction is the main outcome of COVID-19 infection. In critically ill patients, however, liver complications have also been reported. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to draw generalized conclusions regarding impaired liver biochemistry and its potential relationship with COVID-19 disease severity. Materials and Methods We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for all the related literature published up to June 20, 2020. The data were analyzed using R statistical software. A random-effects model was employed for pooling the data. The risk of bias and quality of included studies was assessed using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort studies. Results The present meta-analysis comprises 10 retrospective and two prospective studies (6,976 COVID-19 patients). The serum analysis revealed significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferases and aspartate aminotransferases and significantly lower albumin levels. Moreover, insignificant increases in serum levels of total bilirubin were observed. Upon subgroup analysis of six studies (severe cases, n=131; non-severe cases, n=334) stratified on the basis of disease severity, we found that these abnormalities were relatively higher in severe cases of COVID-19 (albumin [weighted mean difference (WMD), 34.03 g/L; 95% CI, 27.42 to 40.63; p<0.0001; I2=96.83%); alanine transaminase (ALT) [WMD, 31.66 U/L; 95% CI, 25.07 to 38.25; p<0.0001; I2=55.64%]; aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [WMD, 41.79 U/L; 95% CI, 32.85 to 50.72; p<0.0001; I2=51.43%]; total bilirubin [WMD, 9.97 µmol/L; 95% CI, 8.46 to 11.48; p<0.0001; I2=98%]) than in non-severe cases. Conclusion Deranged liver enzymes serve as prognostic factors to assess the severity of COVID-19. Liver markers should, therefore, be observed and monitored continuously.

Cureus ; 12(6): e8790, 2020 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618625


First identified in November 2019 in Hubei Province, the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 soon spread worldwide to become a global health pandemic. The COVID-19 preferentially damages the respiratory system that produces symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. However, the infection often tends to disseminate to involve various organ systems. Recent evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can cause significant neurological damage and resultant neurological symptoms and complications. Here, we provide a comprehensive and thorough review of original articles, case reports, and case series to delineate the possible mechanisms of nervous system invasion and damage by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent consequences. We divided the neurological manifestations into three categories: (1) Central Nervous System involvement, (2) Peripheral Nervous System manifestations, and (3) Skeletal Muscle Injury. Headache and dizziness were found to be the most prevalent symptoms followed by impaired consciousness. Among the symptoms indicating peripheral nervous system invasion, anosmia and dysgeusia were commonly reported. Skeletal muscle injury predominantly presents as myalgia. In addition, encephalitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and Miller Fischer syndrome were among the commonly noted complications. We also emphasized the association of pre-existing comorbidities with neurological manifestations. The aim of this review is to provide a deeper understanding of the potential neurological implications to help neurologists have a high index of clinical suspicion allowing them to manage the patient appropriately.