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1.
Neurology ; 97(21): e2136-e2147, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence supporting an association between the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet TTS and TTS-associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) remain poorly characterized. We aim to systematically evaluate the proportion of CVST among TTS cases and assess its characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, cohorts, case series, and registry-based studies with the aim to assess (1) the pooled mortality rate of CVST, TTS-associated CVST, and TTS and (2) the pooled proportion of patients with CVST among patients with any thrombotic event and TTS. Secondary outcomes comprised clinical characteristics of patients with postvaccination thrombotic event. This meta-analysis is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology proposal. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included in the qualitative analysis comprising 370 patients with CVST out of 4,182 patients with any thrombotic event associated with SARS-CoV-2 vector-based vaccine administration. Twenty-three studies were included further in quantitative meta-analysis. Among TTS cases, the pooled proportion of CVST was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36%-66%; I 2 = 61%). TTS was independently associated with a higher likelihood of CVST when compared to patients without TTS with thrombotic events after vaccination (odds ratio 13.8; 95% CI 2.0-97.3; I 2 = 78%). The pooled mortality rates of TTS and TTS-associated CVST were 28% (95% CI 21%-36%) and 38% (95% CI 27%-49%), respectively. Thrombotic complications developed within 2 weeks of exposure to vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (mean interval 10 days; 95% CI 8-12) and affected predominantly women (69%; 95% CI 60%-77%) under age 45, even in the absence of prothrombotic risk factors. DISCUSSION: Approximately half of patients with TTS present with CVST; almost one-third of patients with TTS do not survive. Further research is required to identify independent predictors of TTS following adenovirus vector-based vaccination. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The prespecified study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42021250709).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
2.
Neurology ; 97(21): e2136-e2147, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence supporting an association between the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet TTS and TTS-associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) remain poorly characterized. We aim to systematically evaluate the proportion of CVST among TTS cases and assess its characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, cohorts, case series, and registry-based studies with the aim to assess (1) the pooled mortality rate of CVST, TTS-associated CVST, and TTS and (2) the pooled proportion of patients with CVST among patients with any thrombotic event and TTS. Secondary outcomes comprised clinical characteristics of patients with postvaccination thrombotic event. This meta-analysis is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology proposal. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included in the qualitative analysis comprising 370 patients with CVST out of 4,182 patients with any thrombotic event associated with SARS-CoV-2 vector-based vaccine administration. Twenty-three studies were included further in quantitative meta-analysis. Among TTS cases, the pooled proportion of CVST was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36%-66%; I 2 = 61%). TTS was independently associated with a higher likelihood of CVST when compared to patients without TTS with thrombotic events after vaccination (odds ratio 13.8; 95% CI 2.0-97.3; I 2 = 78%). The pooled mortality rates of TTS and TTS-associated CVST were 28% (95% CI 21%-36%) and 38% (95% CI 27%-49%), respectively. Thrombotic complications developed within 2 weeks of exposure to vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (mean interval 10 days; 95% CI 8-12) and affected predominantly women (69%; 95% CI 60%-77%) under age 45, even in the absence of prothrombotic risk factors. DISCUSSION: Approximately half of patients with TTS present with CVST; almost one-third of patients with TTS do not survive. Further research is required to identify independent predictors of TTS following adenovirus vector-based vaccination. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The prespecified study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42021250709).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3517-3529, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mounting evidence supports an association between Guillain-Barré syndrome spectrum (GBSs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, GBSs in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly characterized, whilst GBSs prevalence amongst COVID-19 patients has not been previously systematically evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and case series studies reporting on the occurrence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19-associated GBSs was performed. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates and odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), compared to non-COVID-19, contemporary or historical GBSs patients. RESULTS: Eighteen eligible studies (11 cohorts, seven case series) were identified including a total of 136,746 COVID-19 patients. Amongst COVID-19 patients, including hospitalized and non-hospitalized cases, the pooled GBSs prevalence was 0.15‰ (95% CI 0%-0.49‰; I2  = 96%). Compared with non-infected contemporary or historical controls, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased odds for demyelinating GBSs subtypes (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.32%-8.09%; I2  = 0%). In SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, olfactory or concomitant cranial nerve involvement was noted in 41.4% (95% CI 3.5%-60.4%; I2  = 46%) and 42.8% (95% CI 32.8%-53%; I2  = 0%) of the patients, respectively. Clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality were comparable between COVID-19 GBSs patients and non-infected contemporary or historical GBSs controls. CONCLUSION: GBSs prevalence was estimated at 15 cases per 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. COVID-19 appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of GBSs and with demyelinating GBSs variants in particular.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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