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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22271697

ABSTRACT

Long-term SARS-CoV-2 infections in immunodeficient patients are an important source of variation for the virus but are understudied. Many case studies have been published which describe one or a small number of long-term infected individuals but no study has combined these sequences into a cohesive dataset. This work aims to rectify this and study the genomics of this patient group through a combination of literature searches as well as identifying new case series directly from the COG-UK dataset. The spike gene receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domains (NTD) were identified as mutation hotspots. Numerous mutations associated with variants of concern were observed to emerge recurrently. Additionally a mutation in the envelope gene, - T30I was determined to be the most recurrent frequently occurring mutation arising in persistent infections. A high proportion of recurrent mutations in immunodeficient individuals are associated with ACE2 affinity, immune escape, or viral packaging optimisation. There is an apparent selective pressure for mutations which aid intra-host transmission or persistence which are often different to mutations which aid inter-host transmission, although the fact that multiple recurrent de novo mutations are considered defining for variants of concern strongly indicates that this potential source of novel variants should not be discounted.

2.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-283077

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing has been widely deployed to study the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with more than 90,000 genome sequences uploaded to the GISAID database. We published a method for SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing (https://www.protocols.io/view/ncov-2019-sequencing-protocol-bbmuik6w) online on January 22, 2020. This approach has rapidly become the most popular method for sequencing SARS-CoV-2 due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. Here we present improvements to the original protocol: i) an updated primer scheme with 22 additional primers to improve genome coverage, ii) a streamlined library preparation workflow which improves demultiplexing rate for up to 96 samples and reduces hands-on time by several hours and iii) cost savings which bring the reagent cost down to {pound}10 per sample making it practical for individual labs to sequence thousands of SARS-CoV-2 genomes to support national and international genomic epidemiology efforts.

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