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1.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 7, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The comparison of respiratory system compliance (Crs) between COVID and non-COVID ARDS patients has been the object of debate, but few studies have evaluated it when considering applied positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), which is one of the known determinants of Crs itself. The aim of this study was to compare Crs taking into account the applied PEEP. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients were created: those with COVID-ARDS and those with non-COVID ARDS. In the whole sample the association between Crs and type of ARDS at different PEEP levels was adjusted for anthropometric and clinical variables. As secondary analyses, patients were matched for predicted functional residual capacity and the same association was assessed. Moreover, the association between Crs and type of ARDS was reassessed at predefined PEEP level of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O with a propensity score-weighted linear model. RESULTS: 367 patients were included in the study, 276 patients with COVID-ARDS and 91 with non-COVID ARDS. The association between Crs and type of ARDS was not significant in both the complete cohorts (p = 0.17) and in the matched cohorts (p = 0.92). This was true also for the propensity score weighted association at PEEP 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O, while it was statistically significant at PEEP 0 (with a median difference of 3 ml/cmH2O, which in our opinion is not clinically significant). CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of the respiratory system is similar between COVID ARDS and non-COVID ARDS when calculated at the same PEEP level and while taking into account patients' anthropometric characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Anthropometry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Functional Residual Capacity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lung Compliance , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
3.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430900

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer/BioNtech Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19) against SARS-CoV-2 is currently in use in Italy. Antibodies to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to administration are not routinely tested; therefore, two doses may be administered to asymptomatic previously exposed subjects. The aim of this study is to assess if any difference in antibody concentration between subjects exposed and not exposed to SARS-CoV-2 prior to BNT162b2 was present after the first dose and after the second dose of vaccine. Data were retrospectively collected from the clinical documentation of 337 healthcare workers who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing before and after BNT162b2. Total anti RBD (receptor-binding domain) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2's spike protein were measured before and 21 days after the first dose, and 12 days after the second dose of BNT162b2. Twenty-one days after the first dose, there was a statistically significant difference in antibody concentration between the two groups, which was also maintained twelve days after the second dose. In conclusion, antibody response after receiving BNT162b2 is greater in subjects who have been previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 than in subjects who have not been previously exposed to the virus, both after 21 days after the first dose and after 12 days from the second dose. Antibody levels, 21 days after the first dose, reached a titer considered positive by the test manufacturer in the majority of subjects who have been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Evaluating previous infection prior to vaccination in order to give the least effective number of doses should be considered.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): e722-e723, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307569
6.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(7): 751-756, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Single cases and small series of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide. We evaluated incidence and clinical features of GBS in a cohort of patients from two regions of northern Italy with the highest number of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: GBS cases diagnosed in 12 referral hospitals from Lombardy and Veneto in March and April 2020 were retrospectively collected. As a control population, GBS diagnosed in March and April 2019 in the same hospitals were considered. RESULTS: Incidence of GBS in March and April 2020 was 0.202/100 000/month (estimated rate 2.43/100 000/year) vs 0.077/100 000/month (estimated rate 0.93/100 000/year) in the same months of 2019 with a 2.6-fold increase. Estimated incidence of GBS in COVID-19-positive patients was 47.9/100 000 and in the COVID-19-positive hospitalised patients was 236/100 000. COVID-19-positive patients with GBS, when compared with COVID-19-negative subjects, showed lower MRC sum score (26.3±18.3 vs 41.4±14.8, p=0.006), higher frequency of demyelinating subtype (76.6% vs 35.3%, p=0.011), more frequent low blood pressure (50% vs 11.8%, p=0.017) and higher rate of admission to intensive care unit (66.6% vs 17.6%, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an increased incidence of GBS during the COVID-19 outbreak in northern Italy, supporting a pathogenic link. COVID-19-associated GBS is predominantly demyelinating and seems to be more severe than non-COVID-19 GBS, although it is likely that in some patients the systemic impairment due to COVID-19 might have contributed to the severity of the whole clinical picture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
7.
Crit Care Med ; 49(6): e654-e655, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266196
8.
Respir Care ; 66(9): 1406-1415, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ARDS in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by microcirculatory alterations in the pulmonary vascular bed, which could increase dead-space ventilation more than in non-COVID-19 ARDS. We aimed to establish if dead-space ventilation is different in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared with patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS. METHODS: A total of 187 subjects with COVID-19 ARDS and 178 subjects with non-COVID-19 ARDS who were undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation were included in the study. The association between the ARDS types and dead-space ventilation, compliance of the respiratory system, subjects' characteristics, organ failures, and mechanical ventilation was evaluated by using data collected in the first 24 h of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Corrected minute ventilation (V˙E), a dead-space ventilation surrogate, was higher in the subjects with COVID-19 ARDS versus in those with non-COVID-19 ARDS (median [interquartile range] 12.6 [10.2-15.8] L/min vs 9.4 [7.5-11.6] L/min; P < .001). Increased corrected V˙E was independently associated with COVID-19 ARDS (odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.47; P = .007). The best compliance of the respiratory system, obtained after testing different PEEPs, was similar between the subjects with COVID-19 ARDS and the subjects with non-COVID-19 ARDS (mean ± SD 38 ± 11 mL/cm H2O vs 37 ± 11 mL/cm H2O, respectively; P = .61). The subjects with COVID-19 ARDS received higher median (interquartile range) PEEP (12 [10-14] cm H2O vs 8 [5-9] cm H2O; P < .001) and lower median (interquartile range) tidal volume (5.8 [5.5-6.3] mL/kg vs 6.6 [6.1-7.3] mL/kg; P < .001) than the subjects with non-COVID-19 ARDS, being these differences maintained at multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis, the subjects with COVID-19 ARDS showed a lower risk of anamnestic arterial hypertension (odds ratio 0.18, 95% CI 0.07-0.45; P < .001) and lower neurologic sequential organ failure assessment score (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.09-0.27; P < .001) than the subjects with non-COVID-19 ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect measurements of dead space were higher in subjects with COVID-19 ARDS compared with subjects with non-COVID-19 ARDS. The best compliance of the respiratory system was similar in both ARDS forms provided that different PEEPs were applied. A wide range of compliance is present in every ARDS type; therefore, the setting of mechanical ventilation should be individualized patient by patient and not based on the etiology of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Microcirculation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tidal Volume
9.
Crit Care Med ; 49(5): e557-e558, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201114
10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(6): 1660-1667, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162547

ABSTRACT

The most beneficial effect of corticosteroid therapy in COVID-19 patients has been shown in subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), corresponding to a score of 6 on the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI). The aim of this observational, single-center, prospective study was to assess the association between corticosteroids and hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who did not receive IMV (OSCI 3-5). Included were 1,311 COVID-19 patients admitted to nonintensive care wards, and they were divided in two cohorts: (i) 480 patients who received corticosteroid therapy and (ii) 831 patients who did not. The median daily dose was of 8 mg of dexamethasone or equivalent, with a mean therapy duration of 5 (3-9) days. The indication to administer or withhold corticosteroids was given by the treating physician. In-hospital mortality was similar between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounders (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-1.34, P = 0.74). There was also no difference in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (ORadj 0.81, 95% CI, 0.56-1.17, P = 0.26). COVID-19 patients with noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) had a lower risk for ICU admission if they received steroid therapy (ORadj 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.94, P = 0.03). In conclusion, corticosteroids were overall not associated with a difference in hospital mortality for patients with COVID-19 with OSCI 3-5. In the subgroup of patients with NIMV (OSCI 5), corticosteroids reduced ICU admission, whereas the effect on mortality requires further studies.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1015, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065933

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, corticosteroid use has been the subject of debate. The available evidence is uncertain, and knowledge on the subject is evolving. The aim of our cohort study was to evaluate the association between corticosteroid therapy and hospital mortality, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 after balancing for possible confounders. One thousand four hundred forty four patients were admitted to our hospital with a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, 559 patients (39%) were exposed to corticosteroids during hospital stay, 844 (61%) were not exposed to corticosteroids. In the cohort of patients exposed to corticosteroids, 171 (30.6%) died. In the cohort of patients not exposed to corticosteroids, 183 (21.7%) died (unadjusted p < 0.001). Nonetheless, exposure to corticosteroids was not associated with in-hospital mortality after balancing with overlap weight propensity score (adjusted p = 0.25). Patients in the corticosteroids cohort had a reduced risk of ICU admission (adjusted p < 0.001). Treatment with corticosteroids did not affect hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 after balancing for confounders. A possible advantage of corticosteroid therapy was to reduce Intensive Care Unit admission, which could be useful in reducing pressure on Intensive Care Units in times of limited resources, as during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Treatment Outcome
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1345-1355, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042172

ABSTRACT

Importance: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures: Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Respir Care ; 66(4): 619-625, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT) is associated with mortality in patients with ARDS. Corrected minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]) is a simple surrogate of dead space, but, despite its increasing use, its association with mortality has not been proven. The aim of our study was to assess the association between [Formula: see text] and hospital mortality. We also compared the strength of this association with that of estimated VD/VT and ventilatory ratio. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study with prospectively collected data. We evaluated 187 consecutive mechanically ventilated subjects with ARDS caused by novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The association between [Formula: see text] and hospital mortality was assessed in multivariable logistic models. The same was done for estimated VD/VT and ventilatory ratio. RESULTS: Mean ± SD [Formula: see text] was 11.8 ± 3.3 L/min in survivors and 14.5 ± 3.9 L/min in nonsurvivors (P < .001) and was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.15, P = .01). The strength of association of [Formula: see text] with mortality was similar to that of VD/VT and ventilatory ratio. CONCLUSIONS: [Formula: see text] was independently associated with hospital mortality in subjects with ARDS caused by COVID-19. [Formula: see text] could be used at the patient's bedside for outcome prediction and severity stratification, due to the simplicity of its calculation. These findings need to be confirmed in subjects with ARDS without viral pneumonia and when lung-protective mechanical ventilation is not rigorously applied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tidal Volume
15.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In mechanically ventilated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients infected with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we frequently recognised the development of pneumomediastinum and/or subcutaneous emphysema despite employing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy. The purpose of this study was to determine if the incidence of pneumomediastinum/subcutaneous emphysema in COVID-19 patients was higher than in ARDS patients without COVID-19 and if this difference could be attributed to barotrauma or to lung frailty. METHODS: We identified both a cohort of patients with ARDS and COVID-19 (CoV-ARDS), and a cohort of patients with ARDS from other causes (noCoV-ARDS).Patients with CoV-ARDS were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic and had microbiologically confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. NoCoV-ARDS was identified by an ARDS diagnosis in the 5 years before the COVID-19 pandemic period. RESULTS: Pneumomediastinum/subcutaneous emphysema occurred in 23 out of 169 (13.6%) patients with CoV-ARDS and in three out of 163 (1.9%) patients with noCoV-ARDS (p<0.001). Mortality was 56.5% in CoV-ARDS patients with pneumomediastinum/subcutaneous emphysema and 50% in patients without pneumomediastinum (p=0.46).CoV-ARDS patients had a high incidence of pneumomediastinum/subcutaneous emphysema despite the use of low tidal volume (5.9±0.8 mL·kg-1 ideal body weight) and low airway pressure (plateau pressure 23±4 cmH2O). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a seven-fold increase in pneumomediastinum/subcutaneous emphysema in CoV-ARDS. An increased lung frailty in CoV-ARDS could explain this finding more than barotrauma, which, according to its etymology, refers to high transpulmonary pressure.

16.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): 261-270, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Early tracheotomy, defined as a procedure performed within 10 days from intubation, is associated with more ventilator free days, shorter ICU stay, and lower mortality than late tracheotomy. During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, it was especially important to save operating room resources and to have a shorter ICU stay for patients, when ICUs had insufficient beds. In this context of limited resources, early percutaneous tracheostomy could be an effective way to manage mechanically ventilated patients. Nevertheless, current recommendations suggest delaying or avoiding the tracheotomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Aim of the study was to analyze the hospital mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 patients who had received early percutaneous tracheostomy and factors associated with removal of tracheostomy cannula at ICU discharge. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019 ICU. PATIENTS: Adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 3 days after ICU admission. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three days after ICU admission, 164 patients were present in ICU and included in the analysis. One-hundred and twenty-one patients (74%) were tracheostomized, whereas the other 43 (26%) were managed with translaryngeal intubation only. In multivariable analysis, early percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with lower hospital mortality. Sixty-six of tracheostomized patients (55%) were discharged alive from the hospital. Age and male sex were the only characteristics that were independently associated with mortality in the tracheostomized patients (45.5% and 62.8% in tracheostomized and nontracheostomized patients, respectively; p = 0.009). Tracheostomy tube was removed in 47 of the tracheostomized patients (71%). The only variable independently associated with weaning from tracheostomy at ICU discharge was a faster start of spontaneous breathing after tracheotomy was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Early percutaneous tracheostomy was safe and effective in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, giving a good chance of survival and of weaning from tracheostomy cannula at ICU discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Survival Analysis
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100562, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with hypercoagulability caused by direct invasion of endothelial cells and\or proinflammatory cytokine release. Thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin is recommended by current guidelines, but evidence is still weak. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin on hospital mortality in patients admitted for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effects of enoxaparin on intensive care admission and hospital length-of-stay were evaluated as secondary outcomes. METHODS: Observational cohort study, with data collected from patients admitted to Poliambulanza Foundation with positive real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 from 20th February to 10th May 2020. Multivariate logistic regression with overlap weight propensity score was used to model hospital mortality and intensive care admission, hospital length-of-stay was analyzed with a multivariate Poisson regression. Seven hundred and ninety nine (57%) patients who received enoxaparin at least once during the hospitalization were included in the enoxaparin cohort, 604 (43%) patients who did not were included in the control cohort. FINDINGS: At the adjusted analysis enoxaparin was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (Odds Ratio 0·53, 95% C.I. 0·40-0·70) compared with no enoxaparin treatment. Hospital length-of-stay was longer for patients treated with enoxaparin (Incidence Rate Ratios 1·45, 95% C.I. 1·36-1·54). Enoxaparin treatment was associated with reduced risk of intensive care admission at the adjusted analysis (Odds Ratio 0·48, 95% C.I. 0·32-0·69). INTERPRETATION: This study shows that treatment with enoxaparin during hospital stay is associated with a lower death rate and, while results from randomized clinical trials are still pending, this study supports the use of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin in all patients admitted for COVID-19. Moreover, when enoxaparin is used on the wards, it reduces the risk of Intensive Care Unit admission.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736700

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to widespread use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin despite the lack of conclusive evidence for their safety and efficacy. We evaluated the association between treatment with hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin and hospital mortality as the primary outcome. We compared the hospital mortality of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or their combination to the mortality of patients who received neither drug. A logistic multivariate model with overlap weight propensity score was used for estimation of odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). One thousand four hundred and three patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to the hospital. At the time of the analysis, the outcome was available for 1376 (98%) of them. Five hundred and eighty-seven patients (42%) received azithromycin and 377 patients (27%) received hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination. In-hospital mortality was 26%. After the adjusted analysis, azithromycin alone was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.85) compared to no treatment. Hydroxychloroquine alone (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.08) and the combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77-1.69) were not associated with hospital mortality. In this cohort of patients, azithromycin alone was associated with lower hospital mortality but hydroxychloroquine was not associated with increased or reduced mortality. While we await randomized clinical trials, these data support the use of azithromycin in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can contribute to better understanding of its role in further meta-analyses.

19.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(6): 1864-1872, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133630

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and clinical outcomes of patients with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection who had presented with and been treated for acute limb ischemia (ALI) during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic. Methods: We performed a single-center, observational cohort study. The data from all patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 and had presented with ALI requiring urgent operative treatment were collected in a prospectively maintained database. For the present series, successful revascularization of the treated arterial segment was defined as the absence of early (<30 days) re-occlusion or major amputation or death within 24 hours. The primary outcomes were successful revascularization, early (≤30 days) and late (≥30 days) survival, postoperative (≤30 days) complications, and limb salvage. Results: We evaluated the data from 20 patients with ALI who were positive for COVID-19. For the period from January to March, the incidence rate of patients presenting with ALI in 2020 was significantly greater than that for the same months in 2019 (23 of 141 [16.3%] vs 3 of 163 [1.8%]; P < .001)]. Of the 20 included patients, 18 were men (90%) and two were women (10%). Their mean age was 75 ± 9 years (range, 62-95 years). All 20 patients already had a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Operative treatment was performed in 17 patients (85%). Revascularization was successful in 12 of the 17 (70.6%). Although successful revascularization was not significantly associated with the postoperative use of intravenous heparin (64.7% vs 83.3%; P = .622), no patient who had received intravenous heparin required reintervention. Of the 20 patients, eight (40%) had died in the hospital. The patients who had died were significantly older (81 ± 10 years vs 71 ± 5 years; P = .008). The use of continuous postoperative systemic heparin infusion was significantly associated with survival (0% vs 57.1%; P = .042). Conclusions: In our preliminary experience, the incidence of ALI has significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Italian Lombardy region. Successful revascularization was lower than expected, which we believed was due to a virus-related hypercoagulable state. The use of prolonged systemic heparin might improve surgical treatment efficacy, limb salvage, and overall survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemia/surgery , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/mortality , Italy/epidemiology , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/mortality
20.
Acta Biomed ; 91(1): 161-164, 2020 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral infectivity depends on interactions between components of the host cell plasma membrane and the virus envelope. Here we review strategies that could help stem the advance of the SARS-COV-2 epidemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: We focus on the role of lipid structures, such as lipid rafts and cholesterol, involved in the process, mediated by endocytosis, by which viruses attach to and infect cells. Previous studies have shown that many naturally derived substances, such as cyclodextrin and sterols, could reduce the infectivity of many types of viruses, including the coronavirus family, through interference with lipid-dependent attachment to human host cells. CONCLUSIONS: Certain molecules prove able to reduce the infectivity of some coronaviruses, possibly by inhibiting viral lipid-dependent attachment to host cells. More research into these molecules and methods would be worthwhile as it could provide insights the mechanism of transmission of SARS-COV-2 and, into how they could become a basis for new antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Small Molecule Libraries , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use
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