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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(7):255-263, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812722


What is already known about this topic? Protection against COVID-19 after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine wanes, but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses. What is added by this report? Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations was higher after the third dose than after the second dose but waned with time since vaccination. During the Omicron-predominant period, VE against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and hospitalizations was 87% and 91%, respectively, during the 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% and 78% by the fourth month after a third dose. Protection against hospitalizations exceeded that against ED/UC visits. What are the implications for public health practice? All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.

Journal of Phytology ; 13:192-202, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1737537


Oxidative stress is the state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) in the biological system and the ability of the body to detoxify them resulting in increased accumulation of free radicals in the cells. This stress leads to weakening of the immune system thus leading to higher susceptibility to other infections as well. This also includes the weakening of the respiratory tract leading to increased susceptibility of viral infections as in the case of COVID-19. Treatment for any kind of abnormality requires the identification of the key target proteins and pathways that are being altered. Withania somnifera is being used in the traditional medicinal system to improve health and longevity thus creating a sense of mental as well as physical well being. The present study utilises network pharmacological approach to predict the potential oxidative stress targets of the three major withanolides: Withanolide A, withaferin A and withanone. Primarily, the targets of the individual withanolides were obtained from the Swiss target and DIGEP-pred databases and the GO terms and lead hits related to oxidative stress were retrieved from AMIGO2 database. Totally 40 correlative hits were obtained as anti stress targets of the withanolides, which were subjected to functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction analysis to study the enriched pathways underlying oxidative stress response. Further the eleven crucial targets of the four selected pathways were analysed using molecular docking analysis. A total of forty protein hits were obtained as oxidative stress targets of the withanolides. Further, the pathway enrichment of these forty target genes showed the AGE RAGE signalling pathway as highly enriched pathway. Therefore, the AGE RAGE signalling pathway along with its underlying pathways namely MAPK signalling pathway, FOXO pathway and PI3-AKT pathway were chosen among all the other enriched pathways. Further the molecular docking analysis of the eleven target proteins falling under these four pathways showed good docking scores of the withanolides with all the eleven targets with highest interaction against BCL2. From the above study, the biological targets and associated pathways of the withanolides have been retrieved. Thus the in silico approach undertaken in this study explores the role of the key withanolides in the antioxidant potential of the traditional medicinal plant Withania somnifera. © The authors.

World Journal of Dentistry ; 12(6):504-509, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1551754


Aim and objective: Based on the published research, this article aims to systematically review the in vivo effectiveness of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) mouth gargles in reducing salivary viral load in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potential of different variables such as PVP-I, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), saline, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were tested against SARS-CoV-2 in recent clinical trials. In this systematic review, appropriate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the evidence-based question: “what is the efficacy of PVP-I mouth gargle in reducing salivary viral load in COVID-19 patients?” were searched in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library database from January 15, 2020, to June 15, 2021, based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. From the selected articles, their references and reviews relevant to our topic were also looked for any missed studies. Results: After a pertinent search for appropriate studies, five in vivo RCTs were selected and others were excluded. All the trials used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA detection and quantitation. Povidone-iodine mouth gargle (0.5–1%) used by COVID-19 patients 4th hourly effectively reduced salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load, thereby reducing the carriage of infectious virion in adults. Statistically significant increase in Ct values, post 5, 15, and 45 minutes, 3 and 6 hours post-rinsing demonstrated the strong antiviral effect of PVP-I. Conclusion: In this COVID-19 pandemic, based on the published evidence of a few in vivo RCTs, it can be concluded that 0.5 to 1% PVP-I mouth gargle has the potency to effectively reduce the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load. To reinforce the use of PVP-I mouth gargles against SARS-CoV-2, this systematic review emphasizes the necessity for future research that is highly focused, robust, and has consistent techniques and a large sample size. Clinical significance: Research on the efficacy of PVP-I mouth gargle should be framed to focus on the most effective minimal concentration, exposure time, and volume of mouth gargle as well as the SARS-CoV-2 strain. The effect of PVP-I mouth gargles on viral infectivity and their cytotoxic effect on epithelial cells were not distinguished in the studies reviewed. Hence, viral cell culture technique should be employed to establish the potential virucidal activity of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2. Host immunity against SARS-CoV-2 should also be considered in assessing the effectiveness of mouth gargles. © The Author(s).

British Journal of Surgery ; 108:14-14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1254446