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1.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):364-384, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550441

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the most critical universal health disaster of this century. Millions of people are staying at home obeying lockdown to halt the spread of this novel virus. The spread of the virus has forced people to use the mask, gloves, hand sanitizer, etc. daily, and healthcare workers to use personal protection equipment following the WHO guidelines, resulting in huge amounts of medical waste. This pandemic has led to a slowdown of economic activities significantly, and consequently, stock markets have nosedived beyond speculation. Although the deadly coronavirus has taken away millions of precious lives and the livelihood of many sections of people worldwide, it has brought several positive changes in the world. Furthermore, it has led to a massive restoration of the environment and improved air and water quality. Pandemic showed the resilient nature of the environment, including air and water, when human activities are paused. In addition, we also discussed how this pandemic affects human lifestyle behavior. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

2.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 382:1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1391725

ABSTRACT

A new era in epidemics started due to unhealthy practices, population density, environmental changes, migration and deforestation. The rapidity in the spread is primarily due to globalization as we moved to the industrial revolution where everything is internet-connected. In past 30 years, the trend exhibits an increase in the number of epidemics challenging the social well-being, the economy and to some extent the national security. And this translates to the impact on the industrial growth, the race of future together fighting with the newest of the viruses. This paper analyzes and reviews the outbreaks from the start of the revolutionary steam power generation to the modern days, their impact to generate new values to the society that translated the newer solutions to become new norms. Impact on the outbreaks on the various key sectors and the measures that lead us to overcome is presented. We present the new normal which would become normal in the near future, the post COVID-19 scenario. © 2022, Institute of Technology PETRONAS Sdn Bhd.

3.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(2):S17-S19, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1351475

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: Our study aims to identify the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among emergency physicians in the United States following the COVID-19 pandemic, and explore related factors and predictors of PTSD symptoms. Methods: Study participants included board-certified & board-eligible emergency physicians’ residents, and non-emergency physicians working in an EM setting, who were practicing in the US. Convenience sampling recruitment via multiple national EM listservs was used to complete an anonymous, online self-report survey from September 2020 to April 2021. Research data was stored on Qualtrics, a secure, password-protected multi-user database with access granted to the study team only. Surveys included demographics, a binary PTSD experience question and a PSS-I-5 scale pre-piloted for ease of use and comprehension. Based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria, we asked participants to dichotomously self-report trauma. We used the American Psychological Association-approved PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS-I-5), a validated, reliable tool, to assess the severity of the PTSD symptoms in frontline health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic categorized into minimal 0-8, mild 9-18, moderate 19-30, severe 31-45, and very severe 46-80. Descriptive analyses were reported with percentages, means, and medians using RStudio. Figures were used to visualize variations in reported PSS-I-5 scores through the course of the pandemic. Results: Our sample included 315 total complete surveys of the 362 initiated surveys. PSS-I-5 scores ranged from 0-67 (IQR 4-27, median=13, mean=17.2). The majority of participants are age 35-50 (45.7%), EM board-certified (69.5%), white (86.4%), practice at urban level 1 trauma centers (44.8%), and do not have previous PTSD (91.8%) or other mental health diagnoses (73.3%). More than half (55.9%) of the respondents self-identified as having experienced trauma based on the DSM-5 criteria. PSS-I-5 scores were higher from those completing the survey in March-April 2021 (median=13, mean=17.3) compared to those sent in September-October 2020 (median=11, mean=16.5). Most participants had PTSD symptoms (92.1%);40.7% with minimal (129), 22.1% mild (70), followed by moderate (57, 18.0%), severe (39, 12.3%), and very severe (23, 7.3%). A higher proportion of those reporting severe and very severe PTSD symptoms are female and practice at level 3/4 trauma centers. Of non-emergency physicians who participated in the study, a majority reported severe symptoms (median=31, mean=25.4). Major perceived causes of stress included shift acuity, crowding, fear of self/family/friends getting sick, lack of personal protective equipment, and dissatisfaction with hospital administration. Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD symptoms among our sample following the COVID-19 pandemic is 92.1%, with higher PSS-I-5 scores generally reported later in the pandemic. Race, age, and practice setting all appear to be associated with more severe PTSD symptoms. More research is needed to describe and reduce the burden of PTSD among those on the COVID front lines in the ED. [Formula presented] Figure 1. Frequency histogram of PSS scores [Formula presented] Figure 2. PSS mean (circle) and median (star) scores per month of survey end date [Formula presented]

5.
Public Health ; 197: e10-e12, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096214
6.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S57-S65, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-994748

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak originated from Wuhan, China has spread over the world, causing a “Global Pandemic”. We analyzed daily confirmed cases and deaths from different countries to understand the progression of the ongoing pandemic in different parts around the world. The data indicated that the pandemic is in different stages in different countries, where they are either at the end of the second wave or middle or early phase of it or still in the middle of the first wave of infection, and they can be divided into four groups. Type 1 countries such as UK, France, Spain, and the Netherlands are currently witnessing the second wave of infection with an exponential increase in daily cases. Countries such as Australia, United States, Japan, and Poland are currently in the declining stage of second-wave, grouped as Type 2 countries. Type 3 countries such as Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Russia are recently seeing the second wave with slowly rising of confirmed cases. Type 4 countries including India, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico are currently fighting against the first wave of COVID-19. These countries have a chance to learn from the countries which have overcome the second wave successfully. To be ahead of the epidemic curve and preventing it, countries need to make future plans on family, hospital, and community levels. Isolation of the highly vulnerable elderly people and young children, preventing social or public gathering, following the guidelines of COVID-19 prevention including wearing face masks regularly can save countries from devastating effects of the second wave of pandemic COVID-19. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

7.
Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice ; 28(6):342-348, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-939588

ABSTRACT

Background The deaths due to coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in Michigan have been disproportionately centered in the city of Detroit. We sought to characterize hospitalized veterans with Covid-19 infection in Detroit, MI and compare them to inpatients previously reported. Methods A retrospective observational study of 79 veterans admitted to a veteran's hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between March 10, through April 6, 2020. Each patient had at least 30 days of follow-up. Results The median age of 79 enrolled patients was 69.0 years (interquartile range, 57.0-75.0 years) and 74 (94%) were men. Twenty-four (30%) had a recent emergency department visit. Respiratory symptoms were present in 67 (85%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were common (49 [62%]), including diarrhea (27 [34%]) and loss of appetite (31 [39%]). Only 30 (38%) patients had fever on admission. Comorbidities included hypertension (73 [92%]), diabetes (48 [61%]), obesity (42 [53%]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (30 [38%]), coronary disease (28 [35%]), and obstructive sleep apnea (25 [32%]). Nine patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 18 (26%) of 70 required intensive care unit transfer. Twenty-Four (30%) were intubated;of which 3 were extubated and 20 (83%) died. Of the 57 (72%) patients discharged alive, 22 (39%) required supplemental oxygen and 8 (14%) were readmitted within 30 days. Conclusions Detroit veterans were primarily older African American men with more comorbidities than inpatients previously described. Gastrointestinal symptoms were twice as common as fever. Rates of mortality and readmission were higher than those previously reported in populations with shorter follow up. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

8.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1675-1679, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-891732
9.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1663-1674, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-891731

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has now rapidly spread to more than 215 countries and has killed nearly 0.75 million people out of more than 20 million confirmed cases as of 10th August, 2020. Apart from affecting respiratory system, the virus has shown multiple manifestations with neurological affections and damaging kidneys. SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly occurs through close contact of COVID-19 affected person, however air-borne route is also now considered as dominant route of virus spread. The virus has been implicated to have originated from animals. Apart from bats, pangolins and others being investigates to play role in transmitting SARS-CoV-2 as intermediate hosts, the recent reports of this virus infection in other animals (cats, dogs, tigers, lions, mink) suggest one health approach implementation along with adopting appropriate mitigation strategies. Researchers are pacing to develop effective vaccines and drugs, few reached to clinical trials also, however these may take time to reach the mass population, and so till then adopting appropriate prevention and control is the best option to avoid SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article presents an overview on this pandemic virus and the disease it causes, with few recent concepts and advances.

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