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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the complexity of the clinical management and pharmacological treatment of patients presenting with an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). AIM: to explore the incidence and prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in patients presenting with ACS before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We evaluated in-hospital Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeding among 2851 patients with ACS from 17 Italian centers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., March-April 2020) and in the same period in the previous two years. RESULTS: The incidence of in-hospital TIMI major and minor bleeding was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. TIMI major or minor bleeding was associated with a significant threefold increase in all-cause mortality, with a similar prognostic impact before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence and clinical impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We confirmed a significant and sizable negative prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients.

2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 100: 110-118, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800087

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Various forms of Non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) have been used during COVID-19, to treat Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure (HARF), but it has been suggested that the occurrence of strenuous inspiratory efforts may cause Self Induced Lung Injury(P-SILI). The aim of this investigation was to record esophageal pressure, when starting NRS application, so as to better understand the potential risk of the patients in terms of P-SILI and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: 21 patients with early de-novo respiratory failure due to COVID-19, underwent three 30 min trials applied in random order: high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). After each trial, standard oxygen therapy was reinstituted using a Venturi mask (VM). 15 patients accepted a nasogastric tube placement. Esophageal Pressure (ΔPes) and dynamic transpulmonary driving pressure (ΔPLDyn), together with the breathing pattern using a bioelectrical impedance monitor were recorded. Arterial blood gases were collected in all patients. MAIN RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in breathing pattern and PaCO2 were found. PaO2/FiO2 ratio improved significantly during NIV and CPAP vs VM. NIV was the only NRS to reduce significantly ΔPes vs. VM (-10,2 ±5 cmH20 vs -3,9 ±3,4). No differences were found in ΔPLDyn between NRS (10,2±5; 9,9±3,8; 7,6±4,3; 8,8±3,6 during VM, HFNC, CPAP and NIV respectively). Minute ventilation (Ve) was directly dependent on the patient's inspiratory effort, irrespective of the NRS applied. 14% of patients were intubated, none of them showing a reduction in ΔPes during NRS. CONCLUSIONS: In the early phase of HARF due to COVID-19, the inspiratory effort may not be markedly elevated and the application of NIV and CPAP ameliorates oxygenation vs VM. NIV was superior in reducing ΔPes, maintaining ΔPLDyn within a range of potential safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
3.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775304

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used in hyperinflammation related to coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pulse intravenous methylprednisolone in addition to standard treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 304 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 pneumonia were randomised to receive 1 g of methylprednisolone intravenously for 3 consecutive days or placebo in addition to standard dexamethasone. The primary outcome was the duration of the patient hospitalisation, calculated as the time interval between randomisation and hospital discharge without the need of supplementary oxygen. The key secondary outcomes were survival free from invasive ventilation with orotracheal intubation and overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 112 of 151 (75.4%) patients in the pulse methylprednisolone arm and 111 of 150 (75.2%) in the placebo arm were discharged from hospital without oxygen within 30 days from randomisation. Median time to discharge was similar in both groups [15 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0 to 17.0) and 16 days (95%CI, 13.8 to 18.2); hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% CI 0.71-1.20; p=0.528]. No significant differences between pulse methylprednisolone and placebo arms were observed in terms of admission to Intensive Care Unit with orotracheal intubation or death (20.0% versus 16.1%; HR, 1.26; 95%CI, 0.74-2.16; p=0.176), or overall mortality (10.0% versus 12.2%; HR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.42-1.64; p=0.584). Serious adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Methylprenisolone pulse therapy added to dexamethasone was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. MESSAGE OF THE STUDY: Pulse glucocorticoid therapy is used for severe and/or life threatening immuno-inflammatory diseases. The addition of pulse glucocorticoid therapy to the standard low dose of dexamethasone scheme was not of benefit in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311156

ABSTRACT

Background: In Italy, since the first symptomatic cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in late February 2020, 205.463 cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported as of April 30, causing an high rate of hospital admission through the Emergency Department (ED). Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of ROX index in predicting hospitalization and mortality in patients with suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 in the ED. Secondary outcomes were to assess the number of readmissions and the variations of ROX index between first and second admission. Methods: : This is an observational prospective monocentric study, conducted in the ED of Policlinico Sant’Orsola-Malpighi in Bologna. We enrolled 1371 consecutive patients with suspected COVID-19 and ROX index was calculated in 554 patients. Patients were followed until hospital discharge or death. Results: : ROX index value < 25.7 was associated with hospitalization (AUC=0.737, 95%CI 0.696–0.779, p<0.001). ROX index < 22.3 is statistically related with higher 30-days mortality (AUC= 0.764, 95%CI 0.708-0.820, p<0.001). 8 patients were discharged and returned in the ED within the following 7 days, their mean ROX index was 30.3 (6.2;range 21.9-39.4) at the first assessment and 24.6 (5.5;14.5-29.5) at the second assessment, (p=0.012). Conclusion: ROX index, together with laboratory, imaging and clinical findings, can help discriminate patients suspected for COVID-19 requiring hospital admission, their clinical severity and their mortality risk. Furthermore, it can be useful to better manage these patients in territorial healthcare services, especially in the hypothesis of another pandemic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310260

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is frequently associated with radiological diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia and alteration in gases exchange. We decided to test arterial blood gas assay parameters, in particular alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO 2 ), in predicting the need of hospitalization, the survival rate and in identifying pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.We conducted an observational prospective study in one of the Emergency Department of our city. We included consecutive patients with symptoms likely related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed either with positive nasal pharyngeal swabs and/or with suggestive radiological findings. Areas under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve were computed to predict need of hospitalization and the presence of pneumonia. Survival curves were analyzed using a Log-rank test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.We enrolled 825 patients;the final population was composed by 530 patients. Most of them were hospitalized due to complications, the mortality was 14% but no death occured in the ED. It results that a threshold for AaDO 2 of 27 could predict the need of hospitalization as well as a threshold for AaDO 2 of 24 could identify the presence of pneumonia. Survival curves revealed that patients with a value of AaDO 2 less than or equal to 40 had a better survival. We suggest the application of ABG parameters, in particular AaDO 2 , during the first assessment of COVID-19 patients in the ED, because they could be additional tools to help the emergency physician to evaluate the clinical severity of patients.The study was approved by our local ethics committee with the number 551/2020/Oss/AOUBo.

6.
Respiration ; 101(4): 381-393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported a double-step follow-up of patients after hospitalization for COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: We designed an observational double-step follow-up study with a clinical, functional, and radiological evaluation at 2 and 6 months after COVID-19. The primary outcome was to describe symptoms, spirometry, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) at 2 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes were to identify if the lowest PaO2/FiO2 during hospitalization is related with functional and radiological evolution and to assess the correlation between radiological and functional abnormalities at 6 months. METHODS: Symptoms, spirometry, and 6MWT were assessed at 2 and 6 months; arterial blood gas, chest x-ray, and lung ultrasound were performed at 2 months; body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and CT scan were performed at 6 months. RESULTS: Sixty-four per cent and 42% of patients reported at least one symptom at 2 and 6 months, respectively. The most common 6-month functional alteration was DLCO impairment (57% of patients). An improvement of FEV1, FVC, and 6MWT was observed between 2 and 6 months (p < 0.001). Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <200 during hospitalization performed worse at 6MWT at 2 and 6 months (p < 0.05) and reported more extended radiological abnormalities at 6 months (p < 0.001) compared with patients with PaO2/FiO2>200. At 6 months, more extended radiological abnormalities were related with worse 6MWT, DLCO, and total lung capacity (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: DLCO and 6MWT impairment seem to be the functional hallmark of COVID-19 and are related with the severity of acute pneumonia. At 6 months, radiological abnormalities were related to functional impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
7.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602665

ABSTRACT

Aims Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically changed the management and the prognosis of patients experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Several scientific societies have highlighted the need for dedicated paths to deliver better and faster care to improve outcomes. Nevertheless, data depicting the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ACS in Italy are still poor. To perform a propensity weighted analysis on a multicentre Italian registry involving patients with ACS managed before vs. during COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account baseline patients characteristics, clinical presentation, procedural aspects, and in-hospital outcomes (death, bleeding, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, mechanical complication, and arrhythmic complication). Methods and results We included all consecutive patients who have suffered from ACS during two periods before (March/April 2018, March/April 2019) vs. the period of COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). A generalized boosted non-parsimonious regression was used to estimate the propensity scores of having an ACS in 2020 (year of COVID-19) vs. 2018/2019 using an average treatment effect and balancing for all baseline confounders. We included 2851 patients admitted to hospital with ACS in 17 Italian centres: 1079 (37.8%) during 2018, 1056 (37.0%) in 2019, and 716 (25.1%) during the first COVID-19 wave of 2020. Seventy (2.5%) patients had a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 at admission. During 2020 there were higher time-to-emergency-call (P = 0.028) and less diagnosis of unstable angina (P = 0.029) and MINOCA (P = 0.004);none of the admission symptoms differ significantly across the years (P > 0.05) except for fever that was more prevalent in 2020 (P < 0.001). Patients suffering from ACS had lower admission EF (P = 0.006). After PS weighting, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), night admission (P = 0.017), cardiocirculatory arrest before cath-lab (P = 0.041), worst Killip class (P = 0.039), admission EF (P = 0.026), and need for left-ventricle mechanical support (P = 0.011) as independent predictors of in-hospital death. After propensity weighted analysis none of the in-hospital outcomes differed significantly across the years of investigation (all P > 0.05). Conclusions During COVID-19 pandemic in Italy the characteristics and management of ACS was slightly different than the past. However, the rates of ‘hard’, in-hospital outcomes (e.g. deaths) are almost similar to the past, suggesting appropriate care and well-organized emergency-paths for ACS.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(4): 431-439, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551111

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The "Berlin definition" of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) does not allow inclusion of patients receiving high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO). However, several articles have proposed that criteria for defining ARDS should be broadened to allow inclusion of patients receiving HFNO. Objectives: To compare the proportion of patients fulfilling ARDS criteria during HFNO and soon after intubation, and 28-day mortality between patients treated exclusively with HFNO and patients transitioned from HFNO to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Methods: From previously published studies, we analyzed patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who had PaO2/FiO2 of ⩽300 while treated with ⩾40 L/min HFNO, or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with positive end-expiratory pressure of ⩾5 cm H2O (comparator). In patients transitioned from HFNO/NIV to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), we compared ARDS severity during HFNO/NIV and soon after IMV. We compared 28-day mortality in patients treated exclusively with HFNO/NIV versus patients transitioned to IMV. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 184 and 131 patients receiving HFNO or NIV, respectively. A total of 112 HFNO and 69 NIV patients transitioned to IMV. Of those, 104 (92.9%) patients on HFNO and 66 (95.7%) on NIV continued to have PaO2/FiO2 ⩽300 under IMV. Twenty-eight-day mortality in patients who remained on HFNO was 4.2% (3/72), whereas in patients transitioned from HFNO to IMV, it was 28.6% (32/112) (P < 0.001). Twenty-eight-day mortality in patients who remained on NIV was 1.6% (1/62), whereas in patients who transitioned from NIV to IMV, it was 44.9% (31/69) (P < 0.001). Overall mortality was 19.0% (35/184) and 24.4% (32/131) for HFNO and NIV, respectively (P = 0.2479). Conclusions: Broadening the ARDS definition to include patients on HFNO with PaO2/FiO2 ⩽300 may identify patients at earlier stages of disease but with lower mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/mortality , Hypoxia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/mortality , Patient Acuity , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chest ; 159(6): 2505-2506, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517091
11.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408456

ABSTRACT

The synergic combination of D-dimer (as proxy of thrombotic/vascular injury) and static compliance (as proxy of parenchymal injury) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ARDS has not been systematically evaluated. The objective is to determine whether the combination of elevated D-dimer and low static compliance can predict mortality in patients with COVID-19-ARDS. A "training sample" (March-June 2020) and a "testing sample" (September 2020-January 2021) of adult patients invasively ventilated for COVID-19-ARDS were collected in nine hospitals. D-dimer and compliance in the first 24 h were recorded. Study outcome was all-cause mortality at 28-days. Cut-offs for D-dimer and compliance were identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Mutually exclusive groups were selected using classification tree analysis with chi-square automatic interaction detection. Time to death in the resulting groups was estimated with Cox regression adjusted for SOFA, sex, age, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and sample (training/testing). "Training" and "testing" samples amounted to 347 and 296 patients, respectively. Three groups were identified: D-dimer ≤ 1880 ng/mL (LD); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance > 41 mL/cmH2O (LD-HC); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance ≤ 41 mL/cmH2O (HD-LC). 28-days mortality progressively increased in the three groups (from 24% to 35% and 57% (training) and from 27% to 39% and 60% (testing), respectively; p < 0.01). Adjusted mortality was significantly higher in HD-LC group compared with LD (HR = 0.479, p < 0.001) and HD-HC (HR = 0.542, p < 0.01); no difference was found between LD and HD-HC. In conclusion, combination of high D-dimer and low static compliance identifies a clinical phenotype with high mortality in COVID-19-ARDS.

12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 92: 48-54, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272399

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Up to fifteen percent of patients with novel pandemic coronavirus disease (Covid-19) have acute respiratory failure (ARF). Ratio between arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), P/F, is currently used as a marker of ARF severity in Covid-19. P/F does not reflect the respiratory efforts made by patients to maintain arterial blood oxygenation, such as tachypnea and hyperpnea, leading to hypocapnia. Standard PaO2, the value of PaO2 adjusted for arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) of the subject, better reflects the pathophysiology of hypoxemic ARF. We hypothesized that the ratio between standard PaO2 over FiO2 (STP/F) better predicts Covid-19 ARF severity compared to P/F. METHODS: Aim of this pilot prospectic observational study was to observe differences between STP/F and P/F in predicting outcome failure, defined as need of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or deaths in Covid-19 ARF. Accuracy was calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and areas under the ROC curve (AUROC) were compared. RESULTS: 349 consecutive subjects admitted to our respiratory wards due to Covid-19 ARF were enrolled. STP/F was accurate to predict mortality and superior to P/F with, respectively, AUROC 0.710 versus 0.688, p = 0.012.Both STP/F and PF were accurate to predict outcome failure (AUROC respectively of 0.747 and 0.742, p = 0.590). DISCUSSION: This is the first study assessing the role of STP/F in describing severity of ARF in Covid-19. According to results, STP/F is accurate and superior to P/F in predicting in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259667

ABSTRACT

Commenting on this book is a great privilege and an opportunity to share some emerging aspects regarding the development of pulmonary rehabilitation. Indeed, appreciating the therapeutic value of this modality is possible because of continuous research and tireless commitment of all professionals involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases and pulmonary-related impairments....


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Lung Transplantation/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases/rehabilitation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Rehabilitation/standards , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Pulmonology ; 28(1): 13-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246146

ABSTRACT

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is used to treat acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) even outside the ICU and the ROX index (pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen/respiratory rate) may predict HFNC failure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was therefore to verify whether the ROX index is an accurate predictor of HFNC failure for COVID-19 patients treated outside the intensive care unit (ICU) and to evaluate the validity of the previously suggested threshold. DESIGN: Multicenter study. Retrospective observational analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: 3 centres specialized in non-invasive respiratory support (Buenos Aires, Argentina; Bolzano and Treviso, Italy). Patients treated outside the ICU were analysed MEASUREMENTS: The variables to calculate the ROX index were collected during the first day of therapy at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then recorded every 24 hours. HFNC failure was defined as escalation of respiratory support to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or death. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 35 (29%) patients failed HFNC and required intubation. ROC analysis identified the 12-hour ROX index as the best predictor of intubation with an AUC of 0.7916[CI 95% 0.6905-0.8927] and the best threshold to be 5.99[Specificity 96% Sensitivity 62%]. In the survival analysis, a ROX value <5.99 was associated with an increased risk of failure (p = 0008 log - rank test). The threshold of 4,9 identified by Roca as the best predictor in non-COVID patients, was not able to discriminate between success and failure (p = 0.4 log-rank test) in our patients. CONCLUSIONS: ROX index may be useful in guiding the clinicians in their decision to intubate patients, especially in patients with moderate ARF, treated therefore outside the ICU. Indeed, it also demonstrates a different threshold value than reported for non-COVID patients, possibly related to the different mechanisms of hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oximetry , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pulmonology ; 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in two teaching hospitals over a 3-month period (March 2010-June 2020) comparing severe and critical COVID-19 patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit for non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) and subjected to awake prone position (PP) with those receiving standard care (SC). Primary outcome was endotracheal intubation (ETI) rate. In-hospital mortality, time to ETI, tracheostomy, length of RICU and hospital stay served as secondary outcomes. Risk factors associated to ETI among PP patients were also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were included, 76 in the SC and 38 in the PP group. Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimates showed greater effect of PP compared to SC on ETI rate (HR = 0.45 95% CI [0.2-0.9], p = 0.02) even after adjustment for baseline confounders (HR = 0.59 95% CI [0.3-0.94], p = 0.03). After stratification according to non-invasive respiratory support, PP showed greater significant benefit for those on High Flow Nasal Cannulae (HR = 0.34 95% CI [0.12-0.84], p = 0.04). Compared to SC, PP patients also showed a favorable difference in terms of days free from respiratory support, length of RICU and hospital stay while mortality and tracheostomy rate were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Prone positioning in awake and spontaneously breathing Covid-19 patients is feasible and associated with a reduction of intubation rate, especially in those patients undergoing HFNC. Although our results are intriguing, further randomized controlled trials are needed to answer all the open questions remaining pending about the real efficacy of PP in this setting.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 56(5)2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 outbreak spread rapidly in Italy and the lack of intensive care unit (ICU) beds soon became evident, forcing the application of noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) outside the ICU, raising concerns over staff contamination. We aimed to analyse the safety of the hospital staff and the feasibility and outcomes of NRS applied to patients outside the ICU. METHODS: In this observational study, data from 670 consecutive patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 referred to pulmonology units in nine hospitals between March 1 and May 10, 2020 were analysed. Data collected included medication, mode and usage of NRS (i.e. high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), noninvasive ventilation (NIV)), length of stay in hospital, endotracheal intubation (ETI) and deaths. RESULTS: 42 (11.1%) healthcare workers tested positive for infection, but only three of them required hospitalisation. Data are reported for all patients (69.3% male), whose mean±sd age was 68±13 years. The arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio at baseline was 152±79, and the majority (49.3%) of patients were treated with CPAP. The overall unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was 26.9%, with 16%, 30% and 30% for HFNC, CPAP and NIV, respectively, while the total ETI rate was 27%, with 29%, 25% and 28%, respectively; the relative probability of death was not related to the NRS used after adjustment for confounders. ETI and length of stay were not different among the groups. Mortality rate increased with age and comorbidity class progression. CONCLUSIONS: The application of NRS outside the ICU is feasible and associated with favourable outcomes. Nonetheless, it was associated with a risk of staff contamination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Feasibility Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Chest ; 158(5): 1992-2002, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-891960

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will be remembered for the rapidity with which it spread, the morbidity and mortality associated with it, and the paucity of evidence-based management guidelines. One of the major concerns of hospitals was to limit spread of infection to health-care workers. Because the virus is spread mainly by respiratory droplets and aerosolized particles, procedures that may potentially disperse viral particles, the so-called "aerosol-generating procedures" were avoided whenever possible. Included in this category were noninvasive ventilation (NIV), high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), and awake (nonintubated) proning. Accordingly, at many health-care facilities, patients who had increasing oxygen requirements were emergently intubated and mechanically ventilated to avoid exposure to aerosol-generating procedures. With experience, physicians realized that mortality of invasively ventilated patients was high and it was not easy to extubate many of these patients. This raised the concern that HFNC and NIV were being underutilized to avoid intubation and to facilitate extubation. In this article, we attempt to separate fact from fiction and perception from reality pertaining to the aerosol dispersion with NIV, HFNC, and awake proning. We describe precautions that hospitals and health-care providers must take to mitigate risks with these devices. Finally, we take a practical approach in describing how we use the three techniques, including the common indications, contraindications, and practical aspects of application.


Subject(s)
Cannula , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Wakefulness
19.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 133, 2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A Covid-19 outbreak developed in Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna (Italy) at the end of February 2020. Fear of an imminent saturation of available ICU beds generated the notion that rationing of intensive care resources could have been necessary. RESULTS: In order to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 on the ICU capacity to manage critically ill patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of the first 2 weeks of the outbreak (February 24-March 8). Data were collected from regional registries and from a case report form sent to participating sites. ICU beds increased from 1545 to 1989 (28.7%), and patients receiving respiratory support outside the ICU increased from 4 (0.6%) to 260 (37.0%). Patients receiving respiratory support outside the ICU were significantly older [65 vs. 77 years], had more cerebrovascular (5.8 vs. 13.1%) and renal (5.3 vs. 10.0%) comorbidities and less obesity (31.4 vs. 15.5%) than patients admitted to the ICU. PaO2/FiO2 ratio, respiratory rate and arterial pH were higher [165 vs. 244; 20 vs. 24 breath/min; 7.40 vs. 7.46] and PaCO2 and base excess were lower [34 vs. 42 mmHg; 0.60 vs. 1.30] in patients receiving respiratory support outside the ICU than in patients admitted to the ICU, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in ICU beds and use of out-of-ICU respiratory support allowed effective management of the first 14 days of the Covid-19 outbreak, avoiding resource rationing.

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