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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330149

ABSTRACT

Background: . The prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury is the mainstay of the management of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Reducing mechanical power during invasive mechanical ventilation may be beneficial. Flow-controlled ventilation (FCV) (Evone ® , Ventinova Medical, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) is a ventilatory mode providing low and controlled flow rates throughout both inspiration and expiration. We hypothesize that FCV would reduce mechanical power and ventilatory ratio, by allowing the reduction of minute ventilation, in coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 patients developing refractory hypoxemia despite optimization of conventional constant-flow volume-targeted mechanical ventilation (CMV) and prone positioning. Methods: . The study was performed in the intensive care unit of the Vittorio Veneto Hospital (Italy). We included 10 sedated and paralyzed patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19, with arterial partial pressure of oxygen to inspired oxygen fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2) < 150 mmHg during CMV while in prone position for at least 12 consecutive hours. All measurements were obtained in CMV prior to switching to FCV (CMV1), after 4 hours of FCV, and then again after 4 hours of CMV (CMV2). Results: . During FCV inspiratory flow rate, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation were significantly lower than with both CMV1 and CMV2. Mechanical power was 10.8 (9.9-13.4) J/min, as opposed to CMV1 [22.7 (20.3-25.6) J/min (p=0.006)] and CMV2 [20.1 (19.0-24.0) J/min (p=0.006)]. Ventilatory ratio also significantly decreased to 1.40 (1.28-1.44) from CMV1 [2.22 (1.90-2.56) (p=0.006)] and then increased again during CMV2 [2.20 (1.79-2.57) (p=0.006)]. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pH, and PaO2/FiO2 were not significantly different among the three conditions. Conclusions: . FCV reduced mechanical power and increased ventilatory efficiency in severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients receiving CMV and prone positioning.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742512

ABSTRACT

Forms of noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) have been widely used to avoid endotracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, inappropriate prolongation of NIRS may delay endotracheal intubation and worsen patient outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess whether the CARE score, a chest X-ray score previously validated in COVID-19 patients, may predict the need for endotracheal intubation and escalation of respiratory support in COVID-19 patients requiring NIRS. From December 2020 to May 2021, we included 142 patients receiving NIRS who had a first chest X-ray available at NIRS initiation and a second one after 48-72 h. In 94 (66%) patients, the level of respiratory support was increased, while endotracheal intubation was required in 83 (58%) patients. The CARE score at NIRS initiation was not predictive of the need for endotracheal intubation (odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.06) or escalation of treatment (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). In conclusion, chest X-ray severity, as assessed by the CARE score, did not allow predicting endotracheal intubation or escalation of respiratory support in COVID-19 patients undergoing NIRS.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715447

ABSTRACT

As the clinical outcome of octogenarian patients hospitalised for COVID-19 is very poor, here we assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients aged 80 year or older hospitalised for COVID-19 receiving non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS). A multicentre, retrospective, observational study was conducted in seven hospitals in Northern Italy. All patients aged ≥80 years with COVID-19 associated hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) undergoing NIRS between 24 February 2020, and 31 March 2021, were included. Out of 252 study participants, 156 (61.9%) and 163 (64.6%) died during hospital stay and within 90 days from hospital admission, respectively. In this case, 228 (90.5%) patients only received NIRS (NIRS group), while 24 (9.5%) were treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) after NIRS failure (NIRS+IMV group). In-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between NIRS and NIRS+IMV group (61.0% vs. 70.8%, respectively; p = 0.507), while survival probability at 90 days was significantly higher for NIRS compared to NIRS+IMV patients (0.379 vs. 0.147; p = 0.0025). The outcome of octogenarian patients with COVID-19 receiving NIRS is quite poor. Caution should be used when considering transition from NIRS to IMV after NIRS failure.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323427

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic surge of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is posing the unprecedent challenge of rapidly identifying and isolating probable cases and diagnosing the main respiratory complications. We aimed to describe the application of a lung ultrasound (LUS)-based diagnostic approach, combining the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia with patient’s symptoms and clinical history.Methods: This is an international multicenter prospective observational study on patients suspected for COVID-19, presenting to 22 different US and European hospitals. Patients underwent LUS and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) swab test. We identified 3 different clinical phenotypes based on pre-existing chronic cardiac or respiratory diseases (mixed phenotype), and on the presence (severe phenotype) or absence (mild phenotype) of signs and/or symptoms of respiratory failure at presentation. We defined the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia according to 4 different patterns, characterized by the presence and distribution of typical and atypical LUS signs: high (HPLUS), intermediate (IPLUS), alternative (APLUS) and low (LPLUS) probability patterns. The association between the combination of patterns and phenotypes with RT-PCR results was described and analyzed.Findings: We studied 1462 patients, classified in mild (n=400), severe (n=727) and mixed (n=335) phenotypes. In the overall population, the HPLUS corresponded to a positive RT-PCR in 92.6% of cases, with similarly high percentages in all clinical phenotypes ranging from 87.5% (mild) to 90.3% (mixed) and 96.5% (severe). The IPLUS yielded a lower match with positive RT-PCR (65.7%). In patients with respiratory failure, the LPLUS predicted a negative RT-PCR in 100% of cases. In the overall population, the APLUS indicated an alternative pulmonary condition in 81.1% of patients. At multivariate analysis the HPLUS strongly predicted RT-PCR positivity (odds ratio 4.173, interquartile range 2.595-6.712, p<0.0001), independently from age, low oxygen saturation and dyspnea.Interpretation: Combining LUS patterns of probability for interstitial pneumonia with clinical phenotypes at presentation could facilitate the early diagnosis of COVID-19 or suggest an alternative pulmonary condition. This approach may be useful to rapidly guide and support patient’s allocation for a wiser use of hospital resources during a pandemic surge.Funding: None.Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Ethical Approval: The local Ethical Committee Boards of each center approved the study, and the study was conducted following the ethical standards of the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments and with local guidelines for good clinical practice.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307196

ABSTRACT

Background: ascertaining whether respiratory system static compliance (Crs), driving pressure (DP), and tidal volume normalized for ideal body weight (VT/kg IBW) at the 1 st day of controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) are associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: : observational multicenter cohort study. All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted to 25 ICUs belonging to the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February 28 th -April 28 th , 2020), who received CMV, were screened. Only patients fulfilling ARDS criteria and with complete records of Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW within the 1 st day of CMV were included. Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW were collected in sedated, paralyzed and supine patients. Results: : 704 COVID-19 patients were screened and 241 enrolled. Seventy-one patients (29%) died in ICU. The logistic regression analysis showed that: i) Crs was not linearly associated with ICU mortality (p-value for non-linearity=0.01), with a greater risk of death for values <48 ml/cmH 2 O;ii) the association between DP and ICU mortality was linear (p-value for non-linearity=0.68), and increasing DP from 10 to 14 cmH 2 O caused significant higher odds of in-ICU death (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.06-1.99);iii) VT/kg IBW was not associated with a significant increase of the risk of death (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.55-1.52). Multivariable analysis confirmed these findings. Conclusions: : Crs <48 ml/cmH 2 O was associated with ICU mortality, while DP was linearly associated with mortality. DP should be kept as low as possible, even in the case of relatively preserved Crs, irrespective of VT/kg IBW, to reduce the risk of death.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307195

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Current literature mainly examined efficacy, safety and potential predictors of NIV failure provided out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). On the contrary, the outcomes of ICU patients, intubated after NIV failure, remain to be explored. The aims of the present study are: 1) investigating in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ICU patients receiving endotracheal intubation after NIV failure and 2) assessing whether the length of NIV application affects patient survival. Methods: This observational multicenter study included all consecutive COVID-19 adult patients, admitted into the twenty-five ICUs of the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February-April 2020), who underwent endotracheal intubation after NIV failure. Results: Among the 704 patients admitted to ICU during the study period, 280 (40%) presented the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The median age was 69 [60-76] years;219 patients (78%) were male. In-hospital mortality was 43%. Only the length of NIV application before ICU admission (OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06 - 4.98), p = 0.03) and age (OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04 - 1.33), p < 0.01) were identified as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality;whilst the length of NIV after ICU admission did not affect patient outcome. Conclusions: In-hospital mortality of ICU patients intubated after NIV failure was 43%. Days on NIV before ICU admission and age were assessed to be potential risk factors of greater in-hospital mortality.

7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 305, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone position is an emerging rescue therapy applied in patients undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although applied to stabilize respiratory status, in awake patients, the application of prone position may reduce comfort with a consequent increase in the workload imposed on respiratory muscles. Thus, we primarily ascertained the effect of awake prone position on diaphragmatic thickening fraction, assessed through ultrasound, in COVID-19 patients undergoing NIV. METHODS: We enrolled all COVID-19 adult critically ill patients, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for hypoxemic ARF and undergoing NIV, deserving of awake prone positioning as a rescue therapy. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy and any contraindication to awake prone position and NIV. On ICU admission, after NIV onset, in supine position, and at 1 h following awake prone position application, diaphragmatic thickening fraction was obtained on the right side. Across all the study phases, NIV was maintained with the same setting present at study entry. Vital signs were monitored throughout the entire study period. Comfort was assessed through numerical rating scale (0 the worst comfort and 10 the highest comfort level). Data were presented in median and 25th-75th percentile range. RESULTS: From February to May 2021, 20 patients were enrolled and finally analyzed. Despite peripheral oxygen saturation improvement [96 (94-97)% supine vs 98 (96-99)% prone, p = 0.008], turning to prone position induced a worsening in comfort score from 7.0 (6.0-8.0) to 6.0 (5.0-7.0) (p = 0.012) and an increase in diaphragmatic thickening fraction from 33.3 (25.7-40.5)% to 41.5 (29.8-50.0)% (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: In our COVID-19 patients assisted by NIV in ICU, the application of awake prone position improved the oxygenation at the expense of a greater diaphragmatic thickening fraction compared to supine position. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04904731. Registered on 05/25/2021, retrospectively registered. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04904731 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Wakefulness , Adult , Diaphragm , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Prospective Studies
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580727

ABSTRACT

This qualitative study was conducted in critical care units and emergency services and was aimed at considering the death notification (DN) phenomenology among physicians (notifiers), patient relatives (receivers) and those who work between them (nurses). Through the qualitative method, a systemic perspective was adopted to recognise three different categories of representation: 23 clinicians, 13 nurses and 11 family members of COVID-19 victims were interviewed, totalling 47 people from all over Italy (25 females, mean age: 46,36; SD: 10,26). With respect to notifiers, the following themes emerged: the changes in the relational dimension, protective factors and difficulties related to DN. With respect to receivers, the hospital was perceived as a prison, bereavement between DN, lost rituals and continuing bonds. Among nurses, changes in the relational dimension, protective factors and the impact of the death. Some common issues between physicians and nurses were relational difficulties in managing distancing and empathy and the support of relatives and colleagues. The perspective of receivers showed suffering related to loss and health care professionals' inefficacy in communication. Specifically, everyone considered DNs mismanaged because of the COVID-19 emergency. Some considerations inherent in death education for DN management among health professionals were presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Adv Med Sci ; 67(1): 39-44, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with coagulopathy which may result in severe thromboembolic complications. Cardiac injury is not uncommon in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and therefore we aimed to investigate whether it stems from an abnormal coagulative state. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on consecutive patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. Traditional coagulation and whole blood rotational thromboelastometry tests were compared between patients with and without cardiac injury. Cardiac injury was defined by increased levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI). RESULTS: The study population consisted of 104 patients (67% males, median age 65 years), of whom 40 (38%) developed cardiac injury. No clinical differences in the traditional coagulation parameters were observed between patients with and without cardiac injury. Thromboelastometry analysis revealed abnormal maximum clot firmness (MCF) levels in FIBTEM assay in 80 (77%) patients. No significant differences in MCF values (p â€‹= â€‹0.450) and percentage of abnormal MCF (p â€‹= â€‹0.290) were detected between patients with and without cardiac injury. Cardiac injury - not hypercoagulability - was associated with mortality (p â€‹= â€‹0.016). CONCLUSIONS: No differences in traditional coagulation and rotational thromboelastometry parameters were found among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with and without cardiac injury. Other mechanisms besides hypercoagulability may be a main culprit for cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(4): 431-439, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551111

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The "Berlin definition" of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) does not allow inclusion of patients receiving high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO). However, several articles have proposed that criteria for defining ARDS should be broadened to allow inclusion of patients receiving HFNO. Objectives: To compare the proportion of patients fulfilling ARDS criteria during HFNO and soon after intubation, and 28-day mortality between patients treated exclusively with HFNO and patients transitioned from HFNO to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Methods: From previously published studies, we analyzed patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who had PaO2/FiO2 of ⩽300 while treated with ⩾40 L/min HFNO, or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with positive end-expiratory pressure of ⩾5 cm H2O (comparator). In patients transitioned from HFNO/NIV to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), we compared ARDS severity during HFNO/NIV and soon after IMV. We compared 28-day mortality in patients treated exclusively with HFNO/NIV versus patients transitioned to IMV. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 184 and 131 patients receiving HFNO or NIV, respectively. A total of 112 HFNO and 69 NIV patients transitioned to IMV. Of those, 104 (92.9%) patients on HFNO and 66 (95.7%) on NIV continued to have PaO2/FiO2 ⩽300 under IMV. Twenty-eight-day mortality in patients who remained on HFNO was 4.2% (3/72), whereas in patients transitioned from HFNO to IMV, it was 28.6% (32/112) (P < 0.001). Twenty-eight-day mortality in patients who remained on NIV was 1.6% (1/62), whereas in patients who transitioned from NIV to IMV, it was 44.9% (31/69) (P < 0.001). Overall mortality was 19.0% (35/184) and 24.4% (32/131) for HFNO and NIV, respectively (P = 0.2479). Conclusions: Broadening the ARDS definition to include patients on HFNO with PaO2/FiO2 ⩽300 may identify patients at earlier stages of disease but with lower mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/mortality , Hypoxia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/mortality , Patient Acuity , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Montalto, Francesca, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Noto, Alberto, Madotto, Fabiana, Gelardi, Filippa, Savatteri, Paolino, Giarratano, Antonino, Cortegiani, Andrea, Brescia, Fabrizio, Fabiani, Fabio, Zanier, Chiara, Nadalini, Elisa, Gambaretti, Eros, Gabriele, Francesco, Astuto, Marinella, Murabito, Paolo, Sanfilippo, Filippo, Misseri, Giovanni, Moscarelli, Alessandra, Spadaro, Savino, Bussolati, Enrico, Squadrani, Eleonora, Villa, Gianluca, D’Errico, Raffaella, Cocci, Giulia, Lanini, Iacopo, Mirabella, Lucia, Morelli, Alessandra, Tullo, Livio, Caggianelli, Girolamo, Ball, Lorenzo, Iiriti, Margherita, Giordani, Francesca, Giardina, Massimiliano, Mazzeo, Anna Teresa, Grasselli, Giacomo, Cattaneo, Emanuele, Alongi, Salvatore, Marenghi, Cristina, Marmiere, Marilena, Rocchi, Margherita, Turi, Stefano, Landoni, Giovanni, Torrano, Vito, Tinti, Giulia, Giorgi, Antonio, Fumagalli, Roberto, Salvo, Francesco, Blangetti, Ilaria, Cascella, Marco, Forte, Cira Antonietta, Navalesi, Paolo, Montalbano, Marta, Chiarelli, Valentina, Bonanno, Giuseppe, Ferrara, Francesco Paolo, Pernice, Innocenza, Catalisano, Giulia, Marino, Claudia, Presti, Gabriele, Fricano, Dario Calogero, Fucà, Rosa, Palmeri di Villalba, Cesira, Strano, Maria Teresa, Caruso, Sabrina, Scafidi, Antonino, Mazzarese, Vincenzo, Augugliaro, Ettore, Terranova, Valeria, Forfori, Francesco, Corradi, Francesco, Taddei, Erika, Isirdi, Alessandro, Pratesi, Giorgia, Puccini, Francesca, Paternoster, Gianluca, Barile, Alessio, Tescione, Marco, Santacaterina, Irene, Siclari, Eliana Maria, Tripodi, Vincenzo Francesco, Vadalà, Mariacristina, Agrò, Felice Eugenio, Pascarella, Giuseppe, Piliego, Chiara, Aceto, Paola, De Pascale, Gennaro, Dottarelli, Alessandra, Romanò, Bruno, Russo, Andrea, Covotta, Marco, Giorgerini, Valeria, Sardellitti, Federica, Vitelli, Giulia Maria, Coluzzi, Flaminia, Bove, Tiziana, Vetrugno, Luigi.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 1(1):17-17, 2021.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1542137
14.
Ultraschall Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500782

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this survey was to describe the use and diffusion of lung ultrasound (LUS), the level of training received before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clinical impact LUS has had on COVID-19 cases in intensive care units (ICU) from February 2020 to May 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Italian Lung Ultrasound Survey (ITALUS) was a nationwide online survey proposed to Italian anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians carried out after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It consisted of 27 questions, both quantitative and qualitative. RESULTS: 807 responded to the survey. The median previous LUS experience was 3 years (IQR 1.0-6.0). 473 (60.9 %) reported having attended at least one training course on LUS before the COVID-19 pandemic. 519 (73.9 %) reported knowing how to use the LUS score. 404 (52 %) reported being able to use LUS without any supervision. 479 (68.2 %) said that LUS influenced their clinical decision-making, mostly with respect to patient monitoring. During the pandemic, the median of patients daily evaluated with LUS increased 3-fold (p < 0.001), daily use of general LUS increased from 10.4 % to 28.9 % (p < 0.001), and the daily use of LUS score in particular increased from 1.6 % to 9.0 % (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This survey showed that LUS was already extensively used during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic by anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians in Italy, and then its adoption increased further. Residency programs are already progressively implementing LUS teaching. However, 76.7 % of the sample did not undertake any LUS certification.

15.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408456

ABSTRACT

The synergic combination of D-dimer (as proxy of thrombotic/vascular injury) and static compliance (as proxy of parenchymal injury) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ARDS has not been systematically evaluated. The objective is to determine whether the combination of elevated D-dimer and low static compliance can predict mortality in patients with COVID-19-ARDS. A "training sample" (March-June 2020) and a "testing sample" (September 2020-January 2021) of adult patients invasively ventilated for COVID-19-ARDS were collected in nine hospitals. D-dimer and compliance in the first 24 h were recorded. Study outcome was all-cause mortality at 28-days. Cut-offs for D-dimer and compliance were identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Mutually exclusive groups were selected using classification tree analysis with chi-square automatic interaction detection. Time to death in the resulting groups was estimated with Cox regression adjusted for SOFA, sex, age, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and sample (training/testing). "Training" and "testing" samples amounted to 347 and 296 patients, respectively. Three groups were identified: D-dimer ≤ 1880 ng/mL (LD); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance > 41 mL/cmH2O (LD-HC); D-dimer > 1880 ng/mL and compliance ≤ 41 mL/cmH2O (HD-LC). 28-days mortality progressively increased in the three groups (from 24% to 35% and 57% (training) and from 27% to 39% and 60% (testing), respectively; p < 0.01). Adjusted mortality was significantly higher in HD-LC group compared with LD (HR = 0.479, p < 0.001) and HD-HC (HR = 0.542, p < 0.01); no difference was found between LD and HD-HC. In conclusion, combination of high D-dimer and low static compliance identifies a clinical phenotype with high mortality in COVID-19-ARDS.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17730, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397894

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Current literature mainly examined efficacy, safety and potential predictors of NIV failure provided out of the intensive care unit (ICU). On the contrary, the outcomes of ICU patients, intubated after NIV failure, remain to be explored. The aims of the present study are: (1) investigating in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ICU patients receiving endotracheal intubation after NIV failure and (2) assessing whether the length of NIV application affects patient survival. This observational multicenter study included all consecutive COVID-19 adult patients, admitted into the twenty-five ICUs of the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February-April 2020), who underwent endotracheal intubation after NIV failure. Among the 704 patients admitted to ICU during the study period, 280 (40%) presented the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The median age was 69 [60-76] years; 219 patients (78%) were male. In-hospital mortality was 43%. Only the length of NIV application before ICU admission (OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-4.98), p = 0.03) and age (OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.33), p < 0.01) were identified as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality; whilst the length of NIV after ICU admission did not affect patient outcome. In-hospital mortality of ICU patients intubated after NIV failure was 43%. Days on NIV before ICU admission and age were assessed to be potential risk factors of greater in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Lorenzoni, Giulia, Sella, Nicolò, Boscolo, Annalisa, Azzolina, Danila, Bartolotta, Patrizia, Pasin, Laura, Pettenuzzo, Tommaso, De Cassai, Alessandro, Baratto, Fabio, Toffoletto, Fabio, De Rosa, Silvia, Fullin, Giorgio, Peta, Mario, Rosi, Paolo, Polati, Enrico, Zanella, Alberto, Grasselli, Giacomo, Pesenti, Antonio, Navalesi, Paolo, Gregori, Dario, Tocco, Martina, Pretto, Chiara, Tamburini, Enrico, Fregolent, Davide, Pirelli, Pier Francesco, Marchesin, Davide, Perona, Matteo, Franchetti, Nicola, Paolera, Michele Della, Simoni, Caterina, Falcioni, Tatiana, Tresin, Alessandra, Schiavolin, Chiara, Schiavi, Aldo, Vathi, Sonila, Sartori, Daria, Sorgato, Alice, Pistollato, Elisa, Linassi, Federico, Gianoli, Sara, Gaspari, Silvia, Gruppo, Francesco, Maggiolo, Alessandra, Giurisato, Elena, Furlani, Elisa, Calore, Alvise, Serra, Eugenio, Pittarello, Demetrio, Tiberio, Ivo, Bond, Ottavia, Michieletto, Elisa, Muraro, Luisa, Peralta, Arianna, Persona, Paolo, Petranzan, Enrico, Zarantonello, Francesco, Graziano, Alessandro, Piasentini, Eleonora, Bernardi, Lorenzo, Pianon, Roberto, Mazzon, Davide, Poole, Daniele, Badii, Flavio, Bosco, Enrico, Agostini, Moreno, Trevisiol, Paride, Farnia, Antonio, Altafini, Lorella, Calò, Mauro Antonio, Meggiolaro, Marco, Lazzari, Francesco, Martinello, Ivan, Papaccio, Francesco, di Gregorio, Guido, Bonato, Alfeo, Sgarabotto, Camilla, Montacciani, Francesco, Alessandra, Parnigotto, Gagliardi, Giuseppe, Ferraro, Gioconda, Ongaro, Luigi, Baiocchi, Marco, Danzi, Vinicio, Zanatta, Paolo, Donadello, Katia, Gottin, Leonardo, Sinigaglia, Ezio, da Ros, Alessandra, Marchiotto, Simonetta, Bassanini, Silvia, Zamperini, Massimo, Daroui, Ivan, Mosaner, Walter.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 1(1):3-3, 2021.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1388853
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 may experience hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure (hARF) requiring O2-therapy by High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNO). Although Prone Positioning (PP) may improve oxygenation in COVID-19 non-intubated patients, the results on its clinical efficacy are controversial. The present study aims to prospectively investigate whether PP may reduce the need for endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients with COVID-19 receiving HFNO. METHODS: All consecutive unselected adult patients with bilateral lung opacities on chest X-ray receiving HFNO after admission to a SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) were considered eligible. Patients who successfully passed an initial PP trial (success group) underwent PP for periods ≥ 2 h twice a day, while receiving HFNO. The study's primary endpoint was the intubation rate during the stay in the RICU. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included in the study. PP was feasible and safe in 50 (54%) patients. Sixteen (17.2%) patients received ETI and 27 (29%) escalated respiratory support, resulting in a mortality rate of 9/93 (9.7%). The length of hospital stay was 18 (6-75) days. In 41/50 (80%) of subjects who passed the trial and underwent PP, its use was associated with clinical benefit and survival without escalation of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: PP is feasible and safe in over 50% of COVID-19 patients receiving HFNO for hARF. Randomized trials are required to confirm that PP has the potential to reduce intubation rate.

19.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 263, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological features of coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) were indicated to be somewhat different from those described in nonCOVID-19 ARDS, because of relatively preserved compliance of the respiratory system despite marked hypoxemia. We aim ascertaining whether respiratory system static compliance (Crs), driving pressure (DP), and tidal volume normalized for ideal body weight (VT/kg IBW) at the 1st day of controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in COVID-19 ARDS. METHODS: Observational multicenter cohort study. All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted to 25 ICUs belonging to the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February 28th-April 28th, 2020), who received controlled mechanical ventilation, were screened. Only patients fulfilling ARDS criteria and with complete records of Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW within the 1st day of controlled mechanical ventilation were included. Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW were collected in sedated, paralyzed and supine patients. RESULTS: A total of 704 COVID-19 patients were screened and 241 enrolled. Seventy-one patients (29%) died in ICU. The logistic regression analysis showed that: (1) Crs was not linearly associated with ICU mortality (p value for nonlinearity = 0.01), with a greater risk of death for values < 48 ml/cmH2O; (2) the association between DP and ICU mortality was linear (p value for nonlinearity = 0.68), and increasing DP from 10 to 14 cmH2O caused significant higher odds of in-ICU death (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.99); (3) VT/kg IBW was not associated with a significant increase of the risk of death (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.55-1.52). Multivariable analysis confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Crs < 48 ml/cmH2O was associated with ICU mortality, while DP was linearly associated with mortality. DP should be kept as low as possible, even in the case of relatively preserved Crs, irrespective of VT/kg IBW, to reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Tidal Volume
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 268, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) has been diffusely employed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) to face the high request of ventilatory support due to the massive influx of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). We sought to summarize the evidence on clinically relevant outcomes in COVID-19 patients supported by NIV outside the ICU. METHODS: We searched PUBMED®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register, along with medRxiv and bioRxiv repositories for pre-prints, for observational studies and randomized controlled trials, from inception to the end of February 2021. Two authors independently selected the investigations according to the following criteria: (1) observational study or randomized clinical trials enrolling ≥ 50 hospitalized patients undergoing NIRS outside the ICU, (2) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and (3) at least the intra-hospital mortality reported. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines were followed. Data extraction was independently performed by two authors to assess: investigation features, demographics and clinical characteristics, treatments employed, NIRS regulations, and clinical outcomes. Methodological index for nonrandomized studies tool was applied to determine the quality of the enrolled studies. The primary outcome was to assess the overall intra-hospital mortality of patients under NIRS outside the ICU. The secondary outcomes included the proportions intra-hospital mortalities of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation following NIRS failure and of those with 'do-not-intubate' (DNI) orders. RESULTS: Seventeen investigations (14 peer-reviewed and 3 pre-prints) were included with a low risk of bias and a high heterogeneity, for a total of 3377 patients. The overall intra-hospital mortality of patients receiving NIRS outside the ICU was 36% [30-41%]. 26% [21-30%] of the patients failed NIRS and required intubation, with an intra-hospital mortality rising to 45% [36-54%]. 23% [15-32%] of the patients received DNI orders with an intra-hospital mortality of 72% [65-78%]. Oxygenation on admission was the main source of between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 outbreak, delivering NIRS outside the ICU revealed as a feasible strategy to cope with the massive demand of ventilatory assistance. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , CRD42020224788, December 11, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
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