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World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 43, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621542


BACKGROUND: Since its first documentation, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has emerged worldwide, with the consequent declaration of a pandemic disease (COVID-19). Severe forms of acute respiratory failure can develop. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 may affect organs other than the lung, such as the liver, with frequent onset of late cholestasis. We here report the histological findings of a COVID-19 patient, affected by a tardive complication of acute ischemic and gangrenous cholecystitis with a perforated and relaxed gallbladder needing urgent surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old Caucasian male, affected by acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection was admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Due to the severity of the disease, invasive mechanical ventilation was instituted and SARS-CoV-2 treatment (azithromycin 250 mg once-daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg trice-daily) started. Enoxaparin 8000 IU twice-daily was also administered subcutaneously. At day 8 of ICU admission, the clinical condition improved and patient was extubated. At day 32, patient revealed abdominal pain without signs of peritonism at examination, with increased inflammatory and cholestasis indexes at blood tests. At a first abdominal CT scan, perihepatic effusion and a relaxed gallbladder with dense content were detected. The surgeon decided to wait and see the evolution of clinical conditions. The day after, conditions further worsened and a laparotomic cholecystectomy was performed. A relaxed and perforated ischemic gangrenous gallbladder, with a local tissue inflammation and perihepatic fluid, was intraoperatively met. The gallbladder and a sample of omentum, adherent to the gallbladder, were also sent for histological examination. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides display inflammatory infiltration and endoluminal obliteration of vessels, with wall breakthrough, hemorrhagic infarction, and nerve hypertrophy of the gallbladder. The mucosa of the gallbladder appears also atrophic. Omentum vessels also appear largely thrombosed. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates an endothelial overexpression of medium-size vessels (anti-CD31), while not in micro-vessels, with a remarkable activity of macrophages (anti-CD68) and T helper lymphocytes (anti-CD4) against gallbladder vessels. All these findings define a histological diagnosis of vasculitis of the gallbladder. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic gangrenous cholecystitis can be a tardive complication of COVID-19, and it is characterized by a dysregulated host inflammatory response and thrombosis of medium-size vessels.

Cholecystectomy/methods , Cholecystitis , Coronavirus Infections , Gallbladder , Gangrene , Omentum , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Spontaneous Perforation , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cholecystitis/etiology , Cholecystitis/pathology , Cholecystitis/physiopathology , Cholecystitis/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Gallbladder/blood supply , Gallbladder/diagnostic imaging , Gallbladder/pathology , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction/etiology , Infarction/pathology , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Omentum/blood supply , Omentum/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spontaneous Perforation/diagnosis , Spontaneous Perforation/etiology , Spontaneous Perforation/physiopathology , Spontaneous Perforation/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Treatment Outcome
Updates Surg ; 72(2): 259-268, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574895


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been rapidly spreading all over the world and is responsible for the current pandemic. The current pandemic has found the Italian national health system unprepared to provide an appropriate and prompt response, heavily affecting surgical activities. Based on the limited data available in the literature and personal experiences, the Società Italiana di Chirurgia dell'OBesità e Malattie Metaboliche (SICOB) provides recommendations regarding the triage of bariatric surgical procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic defining a dedicated path for surgery in morbidly obese patients with known or suspected COVID-19 who may require emergency operations. Finally, the current paper delineates a strategy to resume outpatient visits and elective bariatric surgery once the acute phase of the pandemic is over. Models developed during the COVID-19 crisis should be integrated into hospital practices for future use in similar scenarios. Surgeons are presented with a golden opportunity to embrace systemic change and to drive their professional future.

Bariatric Surgery , Coronavirus Infections , Elective Surgical Procedures , Obesity/surgery , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Bariatric Surgery/standards , COVID-19 , Decision Trees , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Time Factors