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1.
Cells ; 11(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869482

ABSTRACT

HLA allelic distribution was analysed in a cohort of 96 Northern Italian subjects (53M/43F) (mean age 59.9 ± 13.3 years) from Lombardy who developed COVID-19 during the first two pandemic waves to investigate possible correlations between HLA molecules and disease severity. An important role of HLA- B and HLA-C loci in modulating the clinical severity of COVID-19 disease was identified. In particular, the HLA-B07 supertype was observed to be associated with a significant risk for severe disease; conversely, the HLA-B27 supertype and C*12:02 allele played a protective role as they were associated with milder disease. These associations were confirmed after applying a multinomial regression analysis to adjust the correlation for age, gender and comorbidities with COVID-19 severity. Though the power of results is limited by the small sample size, data herein contribute to shedding light on the role played by genetic background in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HLA-B Antigens , HLA-C Antigens , Aged , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Frequency , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , Humans , Italy , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Powder Diffraction ; 37(1):43-46, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1829891
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320772

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whereas in most cases COVID-19 is asymptomatic or pauci symptomatic, extremely severe clinical forms are observed. In this case complex immune dysregulations and an excessive inflammatory response are observed and are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Natural Killer cells are key players in the control of viral infection and their activity is regulated by a tight balance between activating and inhibitory receptors;an alteration of NK activity was suggested to be associated with the development of severe forms of COVID-19. In this study we analyzed peripheral NK cell subpopulations and the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors in 30 in-patients suffering from chronic neurological conditions who recovered from mild, moderate or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection comparing the results to those of 10 SARS-CoV-2-uninfected patients. Results showed that an expansion of NK subset with lower cytolytic activity and an augmented expression of the 2DL1 inhibitory receptor, particularly when in association with the C2 ligand (KIR2DL1-C2), characterized the immunological scenario of severe COVID-19 infection;an increase of NK expressing the ILT2 inhibitory receptor was instead seen in patients recovering from mild or moderate infection compared to controls. Results herein suggest that the KIR2DL1-C2 NK inhibitory complex is a risk factor toward the development of severe form of COVID-19. Our results confirm that a complex alteration of NK activity is present in COVID-19 infection and offer a molecular explanation for this observation.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648731

ABSTRACT

Gauging the social relationships of the elderly is a significant sociometric research subject and a deep biomedical concern-particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic. It is imperative for facultatives in primary care, for geriatric clinics, and for social care services. In this respect, this article explores the validity of an abbreviated version of the Sociotype Questionnaire (SOCQ), a tool previously developed by the authors for assessing the social relationships of the general population, now specifically addressed to the elderly population. The aim is to construct a 4-item dichotomous scale (SOCG-4) out of the 12 items of the original scale of the SOCQ, so that it can serve to discriminate among the patients in primary care and the geriatric clinic, helping the facultative to find those in need of social care or of psychosocial intervention. The population data have been obtained from a series of previous studies on social relationships in different segments of the elderly population (Ntotal = 915). The resulting abbreviated version of SOCG-4 was extracted by means of confirmatory factor analysis, with the congruence, validity, and relationship with the determinants as close to optimal. The significant correlations with SOCQ (0.82), UCLA (-0.55), Barthel (0.40), and other relevant tests are obtained. The test was also put to trial in a pilot study, being applied to 150 subjects via phone surveys, home visiting, and geriatric clinic-it becomes particularly useful for assessing the social relationships in geriatric clinic use. The 4-item Geriatric Sociotype scale (SOCG-4) appears as a valid measurement instrument for use in the clinic and in other social care instances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Aged , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(12): 6111-6120, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375838

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whereas in most cases COVID-19 is asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic, extremely severe clinical forms are observed. In this case, complex immune dysregulations and an excessive inflammatory response are reported and are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Natural killer cells are key players in the control of viral infection, and their activity is regulated by a tight balance between activating and inhibitory receptors; an alteration of NK activity was suggested to be associated with the development of severe forms of COVID-19. In this study, we analyzed peripheral NK cell subpopulations and the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors in 30 patients suffering from neurological conditions who recovered from mild, moderate, or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, comparing the results to those of 10 SARS-CoV-2-uninfected patients. Results showed that an expansion of NK subset with lower cytolytic activity and an augmented expression of the 2DL1 inhibitory receptor, particularly when in association with the C2 ligand (KIR2DL1-C2), characterized the immunological scenario of severe COVID-19 infection. An increase of NK expressing the ILT2 inhibitory receptor was instead seen in patients recovering from mild or moderate infection compared to controls. Results herein suggest that the KIR2DL1-C2 NK inhibitory complex is a risk factor toward the development of severe form of COVID-19. Our results confirm that a complex alteration of NK activity is present in COVID-19 infection and offer a molecular explanation for this observation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Receptors, KIR/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Humans , Ligands , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
Communication & Society ; 34(3):135-151, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1291957

ABSTRACT

This comparative research analyses the political discussion through social media of the top list German, French, Italian and Spanish Members of the European Parliament during COVID-19 crisis times. Through content analysis, the article focuses on Twitter behaviours during a pandemic crisis period (March 23 to April 23, 2020). The study that analyses up to 14 (first listed MEPs) Twitter accounts and a total N of 2101 tweets looks at clarifying if the COVID-19 pandemic has promoted or discouraged the growth of a European Public Sphere. The results show that audience involvement depended on certain online conducts of the MEP rather than on his or her constant activity. Those behaviours produced as well that the COVID-19 debate was mostly restricted to the political elite, who neither allow European civil society to take part in the discussion or communicate to the general public with the aim of shaping a European Public Sphere. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Communication & Society is the property of Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra, S.A. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

7.
Brain Inj ; 35(5): 520-529, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080951

ABSTRACT

Purpose: SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause the coronavirus disease (COVID), ranging from flu-like symptoms to interstitial pneumonia. Mortality is high in COVID pneumonia and it is the highest among the frailest. COVID could be particularly serious in patients with severe acquired brain injury (SABI), such as those with a disorder of consciousness. We here describe a cohort of patients with a disorder of consciousness exposed to SARS-CoV-2 early after their SABI.Materials and methods: The full cohort of 11 patients with SABI hospitalized in March 2020 in the IRCCS Fondazione Don Gnocchi rehabilitation (Milan, Italy) was recruited. Participants received SARS-CoV-2 testing and different clinical and laboratory data were collected.Results: Six patients contracted SARS-CoV-2 and four of them developed the COVID. Of these, one patient had ground-glass opacities on the chest CT scan, while the remaining three developed consolidations. No patient died and the overall respiratory involvement was mild, requiring in the worst cases low-flow oxygen.Conclusions: Here we report the clinical course of a cohort of patients with SABI exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The infection spread among patients and caused COVID in some of them. Unexpectedly, COVID was moderate, caused at most mild respiratory distress and did not result in fatalities.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , COVID-19/complications , Consciousness Disorders/complications , Brain Injuries/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Consciousness Disorders/virology , Humans , Italy
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895385

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the time course of circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and their ratio (NLR) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 and explore their associations with clinical events and structural damage. Circulating neutrophil, lymphocyte and NLR were sequentially measured in 659 patients admitted for STEMI and in 103 COVID-19 patients. The dynamics detected in STEMI (within a few hours) were replicated in COVID-19 (within a few days). In both entities patients with events and with severe structural damage displayed higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte counts. In both scenarios, higher maximum neutrophil and lower minimum lymphocyte counts were associated with more events and more severe organ damage. NLR was higher in STEMI and COVID-19 patients with the worst clinical and structural outcomes. A canonical deregulation of the immune response occurs in STEMI and COVID-19 patients. Boosted circulating innate (neutrophilia) and depressed circulating adaptive immunity (lymphopenia) is associated with more events and severe organ damage. A greater understanding of these critical illnesses is pivotal to explore novel alternative therapies.

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