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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321185

ABSTRACT

Background: and Aim There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients and compare with historical controls. Methods: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID- 19(n=28) between 22nd April and 22nd June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients from historical controls were taken as comparison group. Results: A total of 28 COVID patients- two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation (AD), and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure(ACLF) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol(n=9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(n=2), viral(n=5), autoimmune hepatitis(n=4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis(n=6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12(46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3(11.5%) and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11(42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8(7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3%(11/26), as compared to 23.1%(18/78) in the historical controls(p=0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF(9/9) died compared to 53.3%(16/30) in ACLF of historical controls(p=0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared to historical controls 2/17(11.8%) vs 2/48(4.2%), though not statistically significant (p=0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio, 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.

2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 753249, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512021

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 is evolving continuously with emergence of several variants of increasing transmission capabilities and pandemic potential. Generation of variants occurs through accumulation of mutations due to the RNA nature of viral genome, which is further enhanced by variable selection pressures of this ongoing pandemic. COVID-19 presentations of SARS-CoV2 are mainly pulmonary manifestations with or without mild gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic symptoms. However, the virus has evolved beyond pulmonary manifestations to multisystem disorder due to systemic inflammation and cytokine storm. Definitive cause of acute or late onset of inflammation, infection in various organs, and host response to emerging variants lacks clarity and needs elucidation. Several studies have reported underlying diseases including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardio- and cerebrovascular disorders, and immunocompromised conditions as significant risk factors for severe form of COVID-19. Pre-existing liver and GI diseases are also highly predominant in the population, which can alter COVID-19 outcome due to altered immune status and host response. We aim to review the emerging variants of SARS-CoV2 and host response in patients with pre-existing liver and GI diseases. Methods: In this review, we have elucidated the emergence and characteristic features of new SARS-CoV2 variants, mechanisms of infection and host immune response, GI and hepatic manifestation with radiologic features of COVID-19, and outcomes in pre-existing liver and GI diseases. Key Findings: Emerging variants of concern (VOC) have shown increased transmissibility and virulence with severe COVID-19 presentation and mortality. There is a drastic swift of variants from the first wave to the next wave of infections with predominated major VOC including alpha (B.1.1.7, UK), beta (B.1.351, South Africa), gamma (B.1.1.28.1, Brazil), and delta (B1.1.617, India) variants. The mutations in the spike protein of VOC are implicated for increased receptor binding (N501Y, P681R) and immune escape (L452R, E484K/Q, T478K/R) to host response. Pre-existing liver and GI diseases not only have altered tissue expression and distribution of viral entry ACE2 receptor but also host protease TMPRSS2, which is required for both spike protein binding and cleavage to initiate infection. Altered immune status due to pre-existing conditions results in delayed virus clearance or prolonged viremia. Even though GI and hepatic manifestations of SARS-CoV2 are less severe, the detection of virus in patient's stool indicates GI tropism, replication, and shedding from the GI tract. COVID-19-induced liver injury, acute hepatic decompensation, and incidences of acute-on-chronic liver failure may change the disease outcomes. Conclusions: The changes in the spike protein of emerging variants, immunomodulation by viral proteins, and altered expression of host viral entry receptor in pre-existing diseases are the key determinants of host response to SARS-CoV2 and its disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Immunity , Liver , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to increase globally. Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have been reported; predictors of outcome are unclear. The existing data is from the early part of the pandemic when variants of concern (VOC) were not reported. AIMS: We aimed to assess the outcomes and predictors in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19. We also compared the differences in outcomes between the first wave of pandemic and the second wave. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database, data on consecutive cirrhosis patients (n=221) admitted to the COVID-19 care facility of a tertiary care center in India were evaluated for presentation, the severity of liver disease, the severity of COVID-19, and outcomes. RESULTS: The clinical presentation included: 18 (8.1%) patients had compensated cirrhosis, 139 (62.9%) acute decompensation (AD), and 64 (29.0%) had an acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Patients with ACLF had more severe COVID-19 infection than those with compensated cirrhosis and AD (54.7% vs. 16.5% and 33.3%, P<0.001). The overall mortality was 90 (40.7%), highest among ACLF (72.0%). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were high leukocyte count, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, child class, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and COVID-19 severity. The second wave had more cases of severe COVID-19 as compared to the first wave, with a similar MELD score and Child score. The overall mortality was similar between the two waves. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have high mortality (40%), particularly those with ACLF (72%). A higher leukocyte count, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, Child class, and MELD score are predictors of mortality.

4.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 39(3): 285-291, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentations and outcomes of Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients with underlying liver disease. We aimed to summarize the presentations and outcomes of COVID-19-positive patients and compare with historical controls. METHODS: Patients with known chronic liver disease who presented with superimposed COVID-19 (n = 28) between 22 April 2020 and 22 June 2020 were studied. Seventy-eight cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 were included as historical controls for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 28 COVID-19 patients (two without cirrhosis, one with compensated cirrhosis, sixteen with acute decompensation [AD], and nine with acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]) were included. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcohol (n = 9), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 2), viral (n = 5), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 4), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 6). The clinical presentations included complications of cirrhosis in 12 (46.2%), respiratory symptoms in 3 (11.5%), and combined complications of cirrhosis and respiratory symptoms in 11 (42.3%) patients. The median hospital stay was 8 (7-12) days. The mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was 42.3% (11/26), as compared with 23.1% (18/78) in the historical controls (p = 0.077). All COVID-19 patients with ACLF (9/9) died compared with 53.3% (16/30) in ACLF of historical controls (p = 0.015). Mortality rate was higher in COVID-19 patients with compensated cirrhosis and AD as compared with historical controls 2/17 (11.8%) vs. 2/48 (4.2%), though not statistically significant (p = 0.278). Requirement of mechanical ventilation independently predicted mortality (hazard ratio 13.68). Both non-cirrhotic patients presented with respiratory symptoms and recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, with worst survival rates in ACLF. Mechanical ventilation is associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Liver Cirrhosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/mortality , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/virology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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