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Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163733


Unlike previous viral diseases, COVID-19 has an "asymptomatic" group that has no symptoms but can still spread the disease to others at the same rate as symptomatic patients who are infected. In the literature, the mass action or standard incidence rates are considered for compartmental models with asymptomatic compartment for studying the transmission dynamics of COVID-19, but the quarantined adjusted incidence rate is not. To bridge this gap, we developed a Susceptible Asymptomatic Infectious Quarantined (SAIQ) model with a Quarantine-Adjusted (QA) incidence to investigate the emergence and containment of COVID-19. COVID-19 models are investigated using various methods, but only a few studies take into account closed-form solutions. The knowledge of closed-form solutions simplifies the construction of the various epidemic indicators that describe the epidemic phenomenon and makes the sensitivity analysis to variations in the data under consideration possible. The closed-form solutions of the systems of four nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are established. The Epidemic Peak (EP), Force of Infection (FOI) and Rate of Infection (ROI) are the important indicators for the control and prevention of disease. We examined these indicators using closed-form solutions and particular parameter values. Different disease control scenarios are thoroughly examined. The four scenarios to analyze COVID-19 propagation and containment are (i) lockdown, (ii) quarantine and other preventative measures, (iii) stabilizing the basic reproduction rate to a level where the pandemic can be contained and (iv) containing the epidemic through an appropriate combination of lockdown, quarantine and other preventative measures.

Math Methods Appl Sci ; 44(14): 11196-11210, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220452


We analyze the disease control and prevention strategies in a susceptible-infectious-quarantined-diseased (SIQD) model with a quarantine-adjusted incidence function. We have established the closed-form solutions for all the variables of SIQD model with a quarantine-adjusted incidence function provided ß ≠ γ + α by utilizing the classical techniques of solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The epidemic peak and time required to attain this peak are provided in closed form. We have provided closed-form expressions for force of infection and rate at which susceptible becomes infected. The management of epidemic perceptive using control and prevention strategies is explained as well. The epidemic starts when ρ 0 > 1, the peak of epidemic appears when number of infected attains peak value when ρ 0 = 1 , and the disease dies out ρ 0 < 1. We have provided the comparison of estimated and actual epidemic peak of COVID-19 in Pakistan. The forecast of epidemic peak for the United states, Brazil, India, and the Syrian Arab Republic is given as well.