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2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329174

ABSTRACT

Background: Tests that can diagnose COVID-19 rapidly and predict prognosis would be significantly beneficial. We studied the ability of breath analysis using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) for diagnosis of COVID-19 and as a predictor for subsequent requirement for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). Methods We undertook a single centre prospective observational study in patients with COVID-19, other respiratory tract infections and healthy controls. Participants provided one breath sample for GC-IMS analysis. We used cross validation analysis to create models that were then tested against the original cohort data. Further multivariable analysis was undertaken to adjust for differences between the comparator groups. Results Between 01/02/2021 and 24/05/2021 we recruited 113 participants, of whom 72 (64%) had COVID-19, 20 (18%) had another respiratory tract infection and 21 (19%) were healthy controls. Differentiation between patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls, and patients with COVID-19 and those with other respiratory tract infections, was achieved with high accuracy. Identification of patients with subsequent requirement for CPAP was completed with moderate accuracy and was not independently associated on multivariable analysis. Conclusions We have shown that GC-IMS has a high capability to distinguish between acute COVID-19 infection and other disease states. Breath analysis shows promise as a predictor of subsequent requirement for CPAP in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. This platform has considerable benefits due to the test being rapid, non-invasive and not requiring specialist laboratory processing.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29: 100630, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients from ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19. METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROSPERO, Cochrane library and MedRxiv) were searched up to 31st August 2020, for studies reporting COVID-19 data disaggregated by ethnicity. Outcomes were: risk of infection; intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and death. PROSPERO ID: 180654. FINDINGS: 18,728,893 patients from 50 studies were included; 26 were peer-reviewed; 42 were from the United States of America and 8 from the United Kingdom. Individuals from Black and Asian ethnicities had a higher risk of COVID-19 infection compared to White individuals. This was consistent in both the main analysis (pooled adjusted RR for Black: 2.02, 95% CI 1.67-2.44; pooled adjusted RR for Asian: 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.83) and sensitivity analyses examining peer-reviewed studies only (pooled adjusted RR for Black: 1.85, 95%CI: 1.46-2.35; pooled adjusted RR for Asian: 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.88). Individuals of Asian ethnicity may also be at higher risk of ITU admission (pooled adjusted RR 1.97 95% CI 1.34-2.89) (but no studies had yet been peer-reviewed) and death (pooled adjusted RR/HR 1.22 [0.99-1.50]). INTERPRETATION: Individuals of Black and Asian ethnicity are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection compared to White individuals; Asians may be at higher risk of ITU admission and death. These findings are of critical public health importance in informing interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst ethnic minority groups.

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