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1.
AIDS ; 37(5): 851-853, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289048

ABSTRACT

We developed an ad hoc method to estimate the number of excess deaths among persons with HIV (PWH) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. Using this method, we estimated approximately 1448 excess deaths from COVID-19 among PWH in 2020 in the United States. We also developed an Excel workbook for use as a tool to quickly assess excess deaths among PWH in settings with limited surveillance data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , HIV Infections/complications
2.
AIDS ; 36(12): 1697-1705, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess disruption in healthcare services for HIV treatment by national emergency in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. DESIGN: Time-series analysis. METHODS: We analyzed the IQVIA Real World Data-Longitudinal Prescriptions Database and calculated time trends in the weekly number of persons with active antiretroviral prescriptions for HIV treatment, and of persons who obtained antiretroviral prescriptions during January 2017-March 2021. We used interrupted time-series models to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use between March 2020 and March 2021. RESULTS: We found that the weekly number of persons with active antiretroviral prescriptions decreased by an average 2.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.8% to -1.1%), compared to predicted use, during March 2020 through March 2021. The weekly number of persons who obtained antiretroviral prescriptions decreased 4.5% (95% CI: -6.0% to -3.0%), compared to the predicted number. Men, persons aged ≤34 years, privately insured persons, and persons in medication assistance programs had greater decreases than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a decrease in the number of persons with active antiretroviral prescriptions during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and the number did not return to levels expected in the absence of the pandemic. Disruptions in HIV care and decreased ART may lead to lower levels of viral suppression and immunologic control, and increased HIV transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prescriptions , United States/epidemiology
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(3): 297-304, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health inequities among people with HIV may be compounded by disparities in the prevalence of comorbidities associated with an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. SETTING: Complex sample survey designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of adults with diagnosed HIV in the United States. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of having ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity associated with severe illness from COVID-19 and prevalence differences (PDs) by race/ethnicity, income level, and type of health insurance. We considered PDs ≥5 percentage points to be meaningful from a public health perspective. RESULTS: An estimated 37.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 36.6 to 39.2] of adults receiving HIV care had ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity associated with severe illness from COVID-19. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks or African Americans were more likely [adjusted PD, 7.8 percentage points (95% CI: 5.7 to 10.0)] and non-Hispanic Asians were less likely [adjusted PD, -13.7 percentage points (95% CI: -22.3 to -5.0)] to have ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity after adjusting for age differences. There were no meaningful differences between non-Hispanic Whites and adults in other racial/ethnic groups. Those with low income were more likely to have ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity [PD, 7.3 percentage points (95% CI: 5.1 to 9.4)]. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults receiving HIV care, non-Hispanic Blacks and those with low income were more likely to have ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity associated with severe COVID-19. Building health equity among people with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic may require reducing the impact of comorbidities in heavily affected communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ethnicity , HIV Infections/complications , Poverty , Racial Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa596, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological features and outcomes of hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described; however, the temporal progression and medical complications of disease among hospitalized patients require further study. Detailed descriptions of the natural history of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients are paramount to optimize health care resource utilization, and the detection of different clinical phenotypes may allow tailored clinical management strategies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 305 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 8 academic and community hospitals. Patient characteristics included demographics, comorbidities, medication use, medical complications, intensive care utilization, and longitudinal vital sign and laboratory test values. We examined laboratory and vital sign trends by mortality status and length of stay. To identify clinical phenotypes, we calculated Gower's dissimilarity matrix between each patient's clinical characteristics and clustered similar patients using the partitioning around medoids algorithm. RESULTS: One phenotype of 6 identified was characterized by high mortality (49%), older age, male sex, elevated inflammatory markers, high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and shock. Patients with this severe phenotype had significantly elevated peak C-reactive protein creatinine, D-dimer, and white blood cell count and lower minimum lymphocyte count compared with other phenotypes (P < .01, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of hospitalized adults, we identified a severe phenotype of COVID-19 based on the characteristics of its clinical course and poor prognosis. These findings need to be validated in other cohorts, as improved understanding of clinical phenotypes and risk factors for their development could help inform prognosis and tailored clinical management for COVID-19.

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