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Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine ; 15:24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1766664


Media is an opportunity for health professionals;however, it is not free of threats. Fixing the threats requires professional systematization through developing practical guidelines, which brings us to the goal this study was designed to achieve. The study was conducted qualitatively through literature review, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group discussion with health and media experts, as a result of which 486 codes were extracted and classified into 4 groups. The first group was addressed to media professionals and contained 126 codes in 5 categories: seeking and reporting the truth, harm minimization, integrity, independence, and respect for the rights of others. The second and third groups were addressed to health professionals, the former (150 codes) dealing with formal media, and the latter (190 codes) dealing with cyberspace. These groups were both categorized into 6 categories: scientific demeanor, beneficence, harm minimization, and respect for the rights of others. The fourth group was addressed to the public audience and contained 20 codes categorized into 2 categories: ethics of belief, and ethics of (re-)publishing. Since the study was conducted during the pandemic/infodemic, the proposed codes can help reduce possible conflicts in similar future situations.

Frontiers in Emergency Medicine ; 5(2), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404159


Introduction: Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019, until mid-April 2020 the total number of cases worldwide exceeded two millions and the death toll exceeded 130000 cases. Objective: The current study conducted to explore the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients, fatality of this disease and its mortality risk factors in major hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods: The data were collected in four major teaching hospitals affiliated with TUMS for all the patients that were admitted between Feb 19th and Apr 15th 2020 and were diagnosed as COVID-19 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), clinical diagnosis and/or lung computed tomography (CT) scan. The case fatality rate of the disease was estimated by age, sex, symptoms, comorbidities, and type of diagnosis. Logistic regression model was used to examine the associations between different factors and in-hospital deaths. Results: By Apr 15th 2020, a total of 4377 patients were admitted with COVID-19 diagnosis in four selected hospitals and 496 (11.3%) of these patients died in hospital. The case fatality rate of this disease was 28.8% in the ≥80-year age group, which was the highest compared to the other age groups. The case fatality rates were 12.5% and 9.8% among men and women, respectively. The results of multiple logistic regression on the outcome of death indicated that age, sex, cough, myalgia, reduced consciousness at arrival and past history of cancer were significantly associated with in-hospital death. Adjusting the effect of other variables, for each 10-year increase in age, the odds of death due to COVID-19 was 1.61 times greater (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.51 to 1.72, p<0.001). Conclusions: Older age, the male gender, past history of comorbidities (particularly cancer) and reduced consciousness at arrival are among the factors that can significantly increase the odds of in-hospital death in COVID 19 patients. These factors might be helpful in detecting and managing patients with poorer prognosis. © 2021 Tehran University of Medical Sciences.