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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336015

ABSTRACT

Background: People with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and stillbirth. Few studies have assessed whether the risk of adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes varies by trimester of infection. Objectives: We describe clinical characteristics (i.e., treatment among pregnant people with moderate to critical illness) and pregnancy and infant outcomes in pregnant people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by trimester of infection. Study Design: The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) collects longitudinal data on people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and their infants. This analysis included people reported to SET-NET with infection in 2020, with known timing of infection and pregnancy outcome. Outcomes are described by trimester of infection. Pregnancy outcomes examined were live birth and pregnancy loss (<20 weeks gestation and ≥20 weeks gestation). Infant outcomes included preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), small for gestational age (SGA), birth defects, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated for pregnancy and selected infant outcomes by trimester of infection, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and health insurance. Among those with moderate-to-critical COVID-19 illness, demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant people by COVID-19 specific treatment status were described. Results: : Among 44,914 people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, 35,200 (78.3%) people with known timing of infection and pregnancy outcome were included. There were 35,574 liveborn infants and 193 pregnancy losses (<20 weeks (n=52) and ≥20 weeks (n=141)) reported. Half (50.8%) of pregnant people had infection in the third trimester, 30.8% in the second, and 18.3% in the first. Third trimester infection was associated with a higher frequency of preterm birth compared to first or second trimester infection combined (17.8% vs. 11.8%;aPR 1.44 95% CI: 1.35-1.54). For term infants, those born to people with third trimester infection were more likely to be admitted to the NICU compared to those born to people with first or second trimester infections (6.7% vs. 4.5%, aPR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.16-1.36). Approximately five percent of infants were born SGA, with a higher frequency among infants born to people with third trimester infection (aPR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.27). Prevalence of birth defects was 553.4/10,000 live births, with no difference by trimester of infection. Of 1,732 pregnant people with moderate-to-critical illness, 24.4% (422 cases) were reported to have received any treatment, with 15.3% (265) receiving COVID-19 specific treatment. The most common COVID-19 treatments were remdesivir (57.0%), dexamethasone (45.8%), and azithromycin with hydroxychloroquine (15.4%). Conclusions: : There were no signals for increased birth defects or SGA among infants in this population relative to national baseline estimates, regardless of timing of infection. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in our analysis was higher relative to national baseline data (10.0-10.2%), particularly among people with third trimester infection. Consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy, including preterm birth, support recommended COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination for people who are pregnant or may become pregnant. The findings in this report further highlight gaps in COVID-19 treatment for pregnant people.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914861

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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