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1.
Stem Cell Reports ; 18(6): 1308-1324, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242194

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily infects the respiratory tract, but pulmonary and cardiac complications occur in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To elucidate molecular mechanisms in the lung and heart, we conducted paired experiments in human stem cell-derived lung alveolar type II (AT2) epithelial cell and cardiac cultures infected with SARS-CoV-2. With CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of ACE2, we demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection of both cell types but that further processing in lung cells required TMPRSS2, while cardiac cells required the endosomal pathway. Host responses were significantly different; transcriptome profiling and phosphoproteomics responses depended strongly on the cell type. We identified several antiviral compounds with distinct antiviral and toxicity profiles in lung AT2 and cardiac cells, highlighting the importance of using several relevant cell types for evaluation of antiviral drugs. Our data provide new insights into rational drug combinations for effective treatment of a virus that affects multiple organ systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Stem Cells , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Lung
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(4): 101017, 2023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300905

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised hematology patients are vulnerable to severe COVID-19 and respond poorly to vaccination. Relative deficits in immunity are, however, unclear, especially after 3 vaccine doses. We evaluated immune responses in hematology patients across three COVID-19 vaccination doses. Seropositivity was low after a first dose of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 (∼26%), increased to 59%-75% after a second dose, and increased to 85% after a third dose. While prototypical antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses were elicited in healthy participants, hematology patients showed prolonged ASCs and skewed Tfh2/17 responses. Importantly, vaccine-induced expansions of spike-specific and peptide-HLA tetramer-specific CD4+/CD8+ T cells, together with their T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires, were robust in hematology patients, irrespective of B cell numbers, and comparable to healthy participants. Vaccinated patients with breakthrough infections developed higher antibody responses, while T cell responses were comparable to healthy groups. COVID-19 vaccination induces robust T cell immunity in hematology patients of varying diseases and treatments irrespective of B cell numbers and antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
3.
JCI Insight ; 8(7)2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296026

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy poses a greater risk for severe COVID-19; however, underlying immunological changes associated with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy are poorly understood. We defined immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in unvaccinated pregnant and nonpregnant women with acute and convalescent COVID-19, quantifying 217 immunological parameters. Humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 were similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women, although our systems serology approach revealed distinct antibody and FcγR profiles between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Cellular analyses demonstrated marked differences in NK cell and unconventional T cell activation dynamics in pregnant women. Healthy pregnant women displayed preactivated NK cells and γδ T cells when compared with healthy nonpregnant women, which remained unchanged during acute and convalescent COVID-19. Conversely, nonpregnant women had prototypical activation of NK and γδ T cells. Activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and T follicular helper cells was similar in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women, while antibody-secreting B cells were increased in pregnant women during acute COVID-19. Elevated levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18 were found in pregnant women in their healthy state, and these cytokine levels remained elevated during acute and convalescent COVID-19. Collectively, we demonstrate perturbations in NK cell and γδ T cell activation in unvaccinated pregnant women with COVID-19, which may impact disease progression and severity during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies
4.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123875

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccination, supported by social and public health measures, has proven efficacious for reducing disease severity and virus spread. However, the emergence of highly transmissible viral variants that escape prior immunity highlights the need for additional mitigation approaches. Heparin binds the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and can inhibit virus entry and replication in susceptible human cell lines and bronchial epithelial cells. Primary infection predominantly occurs via the nasal epithelium, but the nasal cell biology of SARS-CoV-2 is not well studied. We hypothesized that prophylactic intranasal administration of heparin may provide strain-agnostic protection for household contacts or those in high-risk settings against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we investigated the ability of heparin to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in differentiated human nasal epithelial cells and showed that prolonged exposure to heparin inhibits virus infection. Furthermore, we establish a method for PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes in heparin-treated samples that can be adapted for the detection of viruses in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells , Heparin , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Humans , COVID-19 , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heparin/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2774, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900484

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infection with SARS-CoV-2 results in varying immunopathology underlying COVID-19. We examine cellular, humoral and cytokine responses covering 382 immune components in longitudinal blood and respiratory samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, IgA are detected in respiratory tract and blood, however, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgM and IgG seroconversion is enhanced in respiratory specimens. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity in respiratory samples correlates with RBD-specific IgM and IgG levels. Cytokines/chemokines vary between respiratory samples and plasma, indicating that inflammation should be assessed in respiratory specimens to understand immunopathology. IFN-α2 and IL-12p70 in endotracheal aspirate and neutralization in sputum negatively correlate with duration of hospital stay. Diverse immune subsets are detected in respiratory samples, dominated by neutrophils. Importantly, dexamethasone treatment does not affect humoral responses in blood of COVID-19 patients. Our study unveils differential immune responses between respiratory samples and blood, and shows how drug therapy affects immune responses during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(8): 1055-1070, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy in animal models provide critical data in vaccine development. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been used extensively in the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. AREAS COVERED: A critical synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development with a focus on challenge studies in NHPs is provided. The benefits and drawbacks of the NHP models are discussed. The citations were selected by the authors based on PubMed searches of the literature, summaries from national public health bodies, and press-release information provided by vaccine developers. EXPERT OPINION: We identify several aspects of NHP models that limit their usefulness for vaccine-challenge studies and numerous variables that constrain comparisons across vaccine platforms. We propose that studies conducted in NHPs for vaccine development should use a standardized protocol and, where possible, be substituted with smaller animal models. This will ensure continued rapid progression of vaccines to clinical trials without compromising assessments of safety or efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Primates , SARS-CoV-2
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