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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2774, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900484


Respiratory tract infection with SARS-CoV-2 results in varying immunopathology underlying COVID-19. We examine cellular, humoral and cytokine responses covering 382 immune components in longitudinal blood and respiratory samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, IgA are detected in respiratory tract and blood, however, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgM and IgG seroconversion is enhanced in respiratory specimens. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity in respiratory samples correlates with RBD-specific IgM and IgG levels. Cytokines/chemokines vary between respiratory samples and plasma, indicating that inflammation should be assessed in respiratory specimens to understand immunopathology. IFN-α2 and IL-12p70 in endotracheal aspirate and neutralization in sputum negatively correlate with duration of hospital stay. Diverse immune subsets are detected in respiratory samples, dominated by neutrophils. Importantly, dexamethasone treatment does not affect humoral responses in blood of COVID-19 patients. Our study unveils differential immune responses between respiratory samples and blood, and shows how drug therapy affects immune responses during COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(8): 1055-1070, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873753


INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy in animal models provide critical data in vaccine development. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been used extensively in the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. AREAS COVERED: A critical synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development with a focus on challenge studies in NHPs is provided. The benefits and drawbacks of the NHP models are discussed. The citations were selected by the authors based on PubMed searches of the literature, summaries from national public health bodies, and press-release information provided by vaccine developers. EXPERT OPINION: We identify several aspects of NHP models that limit their usefulness for vaccine-challenge studies and numerous variables that constrain comparisons across vaccine platforms. We propose that studies conducted in NHPs for vaccine development should use a standardized protocol and, where possible, be substituted with smaller animal models. This will ensure continued rapid progression of vaccines to clinical trials without compromising assessments of safety or efficacy.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Primates , SARS-CoV-2