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1.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 110 million individuals and led to 2.5 million deaths worldwide. As more individuals are vaccinated, the clinical performance and utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology platforms needs to be evaluated. METHODS: The ability of four commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology platforms to detect previous infection or vaccination were evaluated using a cohort of 53 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients, 89 SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated healthcare workers (Pfizer or Moderna), and 127 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Serology results were compared to a cell based SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus (PSV) neutralizing antibodies assay. RESULTS: The Roche S-(spike) antibody and Diazyme neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) assays detected adaptive immune response in 100.0% and 90.1% of vaccinated individuals who received two-doses of vaccine (initial and booster), respectively. The Roche N-(nucleocapsid) antibody assay and Diazyme IgG assay did not detect adaptive immune response in vaccinated individuals. The Diazyme Nabs assay correlated with the PSV SARS-CoV-2 ID50 neutralization titers (R 2 = 0.70), while correlation of the Roche S-antibody assay was weaker (R 2 = 0.39). Median PSV SARS-CoV-2 ID50 titers more than doubled in vaccinated individuals who received two-doses of the Moderna vaccine (ID50: 597) compared to individuals that received a single dose (ID50: 284). CONCLUSIONS: The Roche S-antibody and Diazyme NAbs assays robustly detected adaptive immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. The Diazyme NAbs assay strongly correlates with the PSV SARS-CoV-2 NAbs in vaccinated individuals. Understanding the reactivity of commercially available serology platforms is important when distinguishing vaccination response versus natural infection. SUMMARY: The Roche S (spike protein)-antibody and Diazyme neutralizing-antibodies (NAbs) assays were evaluated for their clinical utility in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 related adaptive immune responses by testing SARS-CoV-2 PCR-confirmed patients, SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated individuals, and SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. Commercial serology results were compared to results generated using a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus (PSV) NAbs assay and previously validated SARS-CoV-2 commercial serology assays (Roche N (nucleocapsid protein) antibody and Diazyme IgG). We demonstrate that the Roche S-antibody and Diazyme NAbs assays detected adaptive immune response in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 PSV NAbs. The Roche S-antibody assay had an observed positive percent agreement (PPA) of 100% for individuals who received two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine. By contrast, the Roche N assay and Diazyme IgG assay did not detect vaccine adaptive immune responses. Our findings also indicate that the Diazyme NAbs assay correlates strongly with the levels of SARS-CoV-2 ID50 neutralization titers using the PSV Nab assay in vaccinated individuals.

2.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753724

ABSTRACT

The recurrent zoonotic spillover of coronaviruses (CoVs) into the human population underscores the need for broadly active countermeasures. We employed a directed evolution approach to engineer three SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for enhanced neutralization breadth and potency. One of the affinity-matured variants, ADG-2, displays strong binding activity to a large panel of sarbecovirus receptor binding domains (RBDs) and neutralizes representative epidemic sarbecoviruses with high potency. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that ADG-2 employs a distinct angle of approach to recognize a highly conserved epitope overlapping the receptor binding site. In immunocompetent mouse models of SARS and COVID-19, prophylactic administration of ADG-2 provided complete protection against respiratory burden, viral replication in the lungs, and lung pathology. Altogether, ADG-2 represents a promising broad-spectrum therapeutic candidate against clade 1 sarbecoviruses.

3.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326636

ABSTRACT

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to coronaviruses (CoVs) are valuable in their own right as prophylactic and therapeutic reagents to treat diverse CoVs and, importantly, as templates for rational pan-CoV vaccine design. We recently described a bnAb, CC40.8, from a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-convalescent donor that exhibits broad reactivity with human beta-coronaviruses (beta-CoVs). Here, we showed that CC40.8 targets the conserved S2 stem-helix region of the coronavirus spike fusion machinery. We determined a crystal structure of CC40.8 Fab with a SARS-CoV-2 S2 stem-peptide at 1.6 A resolution and found that the peptide adopted a mainly helical structure. Conserved residues in beta-CoVs interacted with CC40.8 antibody, thereby providing a molecular basis for its broad reactivity. CC40.8 exhibited in vivo protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in two animal models. In both models, CC40.8-treated animals exhibited less weight loss and reduced lung viral titers compared to controls. Furthermore, we noted CC40.8-like bnAbs are relatively rare in human COVID-19 infection and therefore their elicitation may require rational structure-based vaccine design strategies. Overall, our study describes a target on beta-CoV spike proteins for protective antibodies that may facilitate the development of pan-beta-CoV vaccines. SUMMARY: A human mAb isolated from a COVID-19 donor defines a protective cross-neutralizing epitope for pan-beta-CoV vaccine design strategies.

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