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1.
Metabolites ; 12(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090281

ABSTRACT

Exercise intolerance is a major manifestation of post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection (PASC, or "long-COVID"). Exercise intolerance in PASC is associated with higher arterial blood lactate accumulation and lower fatty acid oxidation rates during graded exercise tests to volitional exertion, suggesting altered metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. It remains unclear whether the profound disturbances in metabolism that have been identified in plasma from patients suffering from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are also present in PASC. To bridge this gap, individuals with a history of previous acute COVID-19 infection that did not require hospitalization were enrolled at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO, USA) and were grouped into those that developed PASC (n = 29) and those that fully recovered (n = 16). Plasma samples from the two groups were analyzed via mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics and compared against plasma metabolic profiles of healthy control individuals (n = 30). Observational demographic and clinical data were retrospectively abstracted from the medical record. Compared to plasma of healthy controls or individuals who recovered from COVID-19, PASC plasma exhibited significantly higher free- and carnitine-conjugated mono-, poly-, and highly unsaturated fatty acids, accompanied by markedly lower levels of mono-, di- and tricarboxylates (pyruvate, lactate, citrate, succinate, and malate), polyamines (spermine) and taurine. Plasma from individuals who fully recovered from COVID-19 exhibited an intermediary metabolic phenotype, with milder disturbances in fatty acid metabolism and higher levels of spermine and taurine. Of note, depletion of tryptophan-a hallmark of disease severity in COVID-19-is not normalized in PASC patients, despite normalization of kynurenine levels-a tryptophan metabolite that predicts mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, PASC plasma metabolites are indicative of altered fatty acid metabolism and dysfunctional mitochondria-dependent lipid catabolism. These metabolic profiles obtained at rest are consistent with previously reported mitochondrial dysfunction during exercise, and may pave the way for therapeutic intervention focused on restoring mitochondrial fat-burning capacity.

2.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652341

ABSTRACT

Aging and obesity independently contribute toward an endothelial dysfunction that results in an imbalanced VWF to ADAMTS13 ratio. In addition, plasma thrombin and plasmin generation are elevated and reduced, respectively, with increasing age and also with increasing body mass index (BMI). The severity risk of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases in adults older than 65 and in individuals with certain pre-existing health conditions, including obesity (>30 kg/m2). The present cross-sectional study focused on an analysis of the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, including measurements of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:AG), VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CBA), Factor VIII antigen, ADAMTS13 antigen, and ADAMTS13 activity, in addition to thrombin and plasmin generation potential, in a demographically diverse population of COVID-19 negative (−) (n = 288) and COVID-19 positive (+) (n = 543) patient plasmas collected at the time of hospital presentation. Data were analyzed as a whole, and then after dividing patients by age (<65 and ≥65) and independently by BMI [<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, >30 (kg/m2)]. These analyses suggest that VWF parameters (i.e., the VWF/ADAMTS13 activity ratio) and thrombin and plasmin generation differed in COVID-19 (+), as compared to COVID-19 (−) patient plasma. Further, age (≥65) more than BMI contributed to aberrant plasma indicators of endothelial coagulopathy. Based on these findings, evaluating both the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, along with thrombin and plasmin generation, could provide insight into the extent of endothelial dysfunction as well as the plasmatic imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolysis potential, particularly for at-risk patient populations.

3.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: grc-750469

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390543

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an ongoing worldwide challenge. The present large study sought to understand independent and overlapping metabolic features of samples from acutely ill patients (n = 831) that tested positive (n = 543) or negative (n = 288) for COVID-19. High-throughput metabolomics analyses were complemented with antigen and enzymatic activity assays on plasma from acutely ill patients collected while in the emergency department, at admission, or during hospitalization. Lipidomics analyses were also performed on COVID-19-positive or -negative subjects with the lowest and highest body mass index (n = 60/group). Significant changes in amino acid and fatty acid/acylcarnitine metabolism emerged as highly relevant markers of disease severity, progression, and prognosis as a function of biological and clinical variables in these patients. Further, machine learning models were trained by entering all metabolomics and clinical data from half of the COVID-19 patient cohort and then tested on the other half, yielding ~78% prediction accuracy. Finally, the extensive amount of information accumulated in this large, prospective, observational study provides a foundation for mechanistic follow-up studies and data sharing opportunities, which will advance our understanding of the characteristics of the plasma metabolism in COVID-19 and other acute critical illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Prognosis , Acute Disease , Adult , Amino Acids/blood , Body Mass Index , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Carnitine/blood , Cohort Studies , Fatty Acids/blood , Female , Humans , Kynurenine/blood , Machine Learning , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tryptophan/blood
5.
Res Sq ; 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237041

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an ongoing worldwide challenge. Exploratory studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 infection on the plasma metabolome have been performed, often with small numbers of patients, and with or without relevant control data; however, determining the impact of biological and clinical variables remains critical to understanding potential markers of disease severity and progression. The present large study, including relevant controls, sought to understand independent and overlapping metabolic features of samples from acutely ill patients (n = 831), testing positive (n = 543) or negative (n = 288) for COVID-19. High-throughput metabolomics analyses were complemented with antigen and enzymatic activity assays on 831 plasma samples from acutely ill patients while in the emergency department, at admission, and during hospitalization. We then performed additional lipidomics analyses of the 60 subjects with the lowest and highest body mass index, either COVID-19 positive or negative. Omics data were correlated to detailed data on patient characteristics and clinical laboratory assays measuring coagulation, hematology and chemistry analytes. Significant changes in arginine/proline/citrulline, tryptophan/indole/kynurenine, fatty acid and acyl-carnitine metabolism emerged as highly relevant markers of disease severity, progression and prognosis as a function of biological and clinical variables in these patients. Further, machine learning models were trained by entering all metabolomics and clinical data from half of the COVID-19 patient cohort and then tested on the other half yielding ~ 78% prediction accuracy. Finally, the extensive amount of information accumulated in this large, prospective, observational study provides a foundation for follow-up mechanistic studies and data sharing opportunities, which will advance our understanding of the characteristics of the plasma metabolism in COVID-19 and other acute critical illnesses.

6.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4455-4469, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889124

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, in particular, short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Erythrocytes , Membrane Lipids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Humans , Lipidomics , Membrane Lipids/analysis , Membrane Lipids/chemistry , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Metabolome/physiology , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/chemistry , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636842

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

8.
JCI Insight ; 5(14)2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDReprogramming of host metabolism supports viral pathogenesis by fueling viral proliferation, by providing, for example, free amino acids and fatty acids as building blocks.METHODSTo investigate metabolic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we evaluated serum metabolites of patients with COVID-19 (n = 33; diagnosed by nucleic acid testing), as compared with COVID-19-negative controls (n = 16).RESULTSTargeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses identified altered tryptophan metabolism into the kynurenine pathway, which regulates inflammation and immunity. Indeed, these changes in tryptophan metabolism correlated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism was also seen in infected patients, with altered levels of most amino acids, along with increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and renal dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines). Increased circulating levels of glucose and free fatty acids were also observed, consistent with altered carbon homeostasis. Interestingly, metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen).CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, this initial observational study identified amino acid and fatty acid metabolism as correlates of COVID-19, providing mechanistic insights, potential markers of clinical severity, and potential therapeutic targets.FUNDINGBoettcher Foundation Webb-Waring Biomedical Research Award; National Institute of General and Medical Sciences, NIH; and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Amino Acids/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Creatine/metabolism , Creatinine/metabolism , Cystine , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine/analogs & derivatives , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polyamines/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptophan/metabolism
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