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2.
Shock ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308137

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The dysregulated immune response in sepsis is highly variable, ranging from hyperinflammation to immunoparalysis. Obesity is associated with the release of inflammatory mediators from adipose tissue, known as adipocytokines, causing a chronic inflammatory state. Perhaps counterintuitively, obesity is also associated with lower mortality in sepsis patients. We investigated the association between obesity, circulating adipocytokine concentrations, immune dysregulation, and outcome in sepsis patients. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, plasma concentrations of the adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were assessed in 167 patients at diagnosis of sepsis due to pneumonia, bacteremia, or acute cholangitis. Adipocytokines were compared between patients with normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2; n = 67), overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m2; n = 56), and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2; n = 42), as well as between immunological endotypes: hyperinflammation (n = 40), immunoparalysis (n = 62), and unclassified (n = 55). RESULTS: Higher circulating concentrations of leptin were observed in patients with obesity compared to patients with normal weight (P = 0.008) and overweight (P = 0.02), whereas adiponectin and resistin plasma concentrations were not different (P = 0.08 and P = 0.85, respectively). Resistin concentrations were associated with immunological endotypes, with the highest levels found in hyperinflammatory patients (P < 0.001). Furthermore, resistin concentrations were predictive for 28-day mortality (adjusted OR = 1.03 per 10 ng/mL, P = 0.04). These associations were not found for leptin and adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and BMI-related adipocytokines are not related to the development of a hyperactive or suppressed immune response as defined by ferritin and mHLA-DR expression in sepsis patients. While resistin is related to the immune response and an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes, these associations are similar in patients with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. This implies that the relationship between resistin and clinical outcome is likely driven by the inflammatory response and not by obesity itself. Taken together, although there exists a strong association between inflammation and sepsis mortality, our results do not point towards a role for obesity and BMI-related adipocytokines in immune dysregulation in sepsis patients.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 29: 100628, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294493

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel mRNA-based vaccines have been used to protect against SARS-CoV-2, especially in vulnerable populations who also receive an annual influenza vaccination. The TACTIC study investigated potential immune interference between the mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccine and the quadrivalent influenza vaccine, and determined if concurrent administration would have effects on safety or immunogenicity. Methods: TACTIC was a single-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at the Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands. Individuals ≥60 years, fully vaccinated against COVID-19 were eligible for participation and randomized into one of four study groups: 1) 0.5 ml influenza vaccination Vaxigrip Tetra followed by 0.3 ml BNT162b2 COVID-19 booster vaccination 21 days later, (2) COVID-19 booster vaccination followed by influenza vaccination, (3) influenza vaccination concurrent with the COVID-19 booster vaccination, and (4) COVID-19 booster vaccination only (reference group). Primary outcome was the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of IgG against the spike (S)-protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, 21 days after booster vaccination. We performed a non-inferiority analysis of concurrent administration compared to booster vaccines alone with a predefined non-inferiority margin of -0.3 on the log10-scale. Findings: 154 individuals participated from October, 4, 2021, until November, 5, 2021. Anti-S IgG GMCs for the co-administration and reference group were 1684 BAU/ml and 2435 BAU/ml, respectively. Concurrent vaccination did not meet the criteria for non-inferiority (estimate -0.1791, 95% CI -0.3680 to -0.009831) and antibodies showed significantly lower neutralization capacity compared to the reference group. Reported side-effects were mild and did not differ between study groups. Interpretation: Concurrent administration of both vaccines is safe, but the quantitative and functional antibody responses were marginally lower compared to booster vaccination alone. Lower protection against COVID-19 with concurrent administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccination cannot be excluded, although additional larger studies would be required to confirm this. Trial registration number: EudraCT: 2021-002186-17. Funding: The study was supported by the ZonMw COVID-19 Programme.

4.
iScience ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2292155

ABSTRACT

We examined the possible non-specific effects of novel mRNA- and adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines by reviewing the randomized control trials (RCTs) of mRNA and adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines. We calculated mortality risk ratios (RR) for mRNA COVID-19 vaccines vs. placebo recipients and compared them with the RR for adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccine recipients vs. controls. The RR for overall mortality of mRNA vaccines vs. placebo was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.63-1.71). In the adenovirus-vector vaccine RCTs, the RR for overall mortality was 0.37 (0.19-0.70). The two vaccine types differed significantly with respect to impact on overall mortality (p=0.015). The RCTs of COVID-19 vaccines were unblinded rapidly and controls were vaccinated. The results may therefore not be representative of the long-term effects. However, the data argues for performing RCTs of mRNA and adenovirus-vector vaccines head-to-head comparing long-term effects on overall mortality. Graphical With a mortality risk ratio (RR) of 1.03 (95% CI: 0.63-1.71), there was no difference in overall mortality for recipients of mRNA vaccines and controls in the randomized trials. In the adenovirus-vector vaccine trials the RR for vaccinated and controls was 0.37 (0.19-0.70).

5.
Annu Rev Virol ; 9(1): 469-489, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283359

ABSTRACT

Trained immunity is defined as the de facto memory characteristics induced in innate immune cells after exposure to microbial stimuli after infections or certain types of vaccines. Through epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of innate immune cells after exposure to these stimuli, trained immunity induces an enhanced nonspecific protection by improving the inflammatory response upon restimulation with the same or different pathogens. Recent studies have increasingly shown that trained immunity can, on the one hand, be induced by exposure to viruses; on the other hand, when induced, it can also provide protection against heterologous viral infections. In this review we explore current knowledge on trained immunity and its relevance for viral infections, as well as its possible future uses.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Virus Diseases , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory
6.
Front Immunol ; 14: 980711, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259363

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: A recent study has suggested that circadian rhythm has an important impact on the immunological effects induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the timing of BCG vaccination (morning or afternoon) affects its impact on severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and clinically relevant respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Methods: This is a post-hoc analysis of the BCG-CORONA-ELDERLY (NCT04417335) multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, in which participants aged 60 years and older were randomly assigned to vaccination with BCG or placebo, and followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To assess the impact of circadian rhythm on the BCG effects, participants were divided into four groups: vaccinated with either BCG or placebo in the morning (between 9:00h and 11:30h) or in the afternoon (between 14:30h and 18:00h). Results: The subdistribution hazard ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first six months after vaccination was 2.394 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.856-6.696) for the morning BCG group and 0.284 (95% CI, 0.055-1.480) for the afternoon BCG group. When comparing those two groups, the interaction hazard ratio was 8.966 (95% CI, 1.366-58.836). In the period from six months until 12 months after vaccination cumulative incidences of SARS-CoV-2 infection were comparable, as well as cumulative incidences of clinically relevant RTI in both periods. Conclusion: Vaccination with BCG in the afternoon offered better protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections than BCG vaccination in the morning in the first six months after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium bovis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , BCG Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Circadian Rhythm , Vaccination
7.
mBio ; 14(2): e0035623, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255307

ABSTRACT

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination has been hypothesized to reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severity, and/or duration via trained immunity induction. Health care workers (HCWs) in nine Dutch hospitals were randomized to BCG or placebo vaccination (1:1) in March and April 2020 and followed for 1 year. They reported daily symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 test results, and health care-seeking behavior via a smartphone application, and they donated blood for SARS-CoV-2 serology at two time points. A total of 1,511 HCWs were randomized and 1,309 analyzed (665 BCG and 644 placebo). Of the 298 infections detected during the trial, 74 were detected by serology only. The SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates were 0.25 and 0.26 per person-year in the BCG and placebo groups, respectively (incidence rate ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 1.21; P = 0.732). Only three participants required hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2. The proportions of participants with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate infections and the mean infection durations did not differ between randomization groups. In addition, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models showed no differences between BCG and placebo vaccination for any of these outcomes. The percentage of participants with seroconversion (7.8% versus 2.8%; P = 0.006) and mean SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 antibody concentration (13.1 versus 4.3 IU/mL; P = 0.023) were higher in the BCG than placebo group at 3 months but not at 6 or 12 months postvaccination. BCG vaccination of HCWs did not reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections nor infection duration or severity (ranging from asymptomatic to moderate). In the first 3 months after vaccination, BCG vaccination may enhance SARS-CoV-2 antibody production during SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE While several BCG trials in adults were conducted during the 2019 coronavirus disease epidemic, our data set is the most comprehensive to date, because we included serologically confirmed infections in addition to self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. We also collected data on symptoms for every day during the 1-year follow-up period, which enabled us to characterize infections in detail. We found that BCG vaccination did not reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections nor infection duration or severity but may have enhanced SARS-CoV-2 antibody production during SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 3 months after vaccination. These results are in agreement with other BCG trials that reported negative results (but did not use serological endpoints), except for two trials in Greece and India that reported positive results but had few endpoints and included endpoints that were not laboratory confirmed. The enhanced antibody production is in agreement with prior mechanistic studies but did not translate into protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , BCG Vaccine , Vaccination , Health Personnel
8.
Clin Obes ; : e12568, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256595

ABSTRACT

Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for adverse outcome in COVID-19, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by secreting multiple pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, known as adipocytokines, which could be involved in COVID-19 severity. We explored the role of adipocytokines in COVID-19 and its association with BMI, clinical outcome, and inflammation. This is an observational study in 195 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Serial plasma concentrations of the adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and various inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Adipocytokines were compared between patients with normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 ), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ), between patients admitted to the ICU and to non-ICU clinical wards, and between survivors and non-survivors. Patients with overweight and obesity displayed higher leptin concentrations and lower adiponectin concentrations throughout hospital admission (p < .001), whereas resistin concentrations were not different from patients with normal weight (p = .12). Resistin concentrations correlated with inflammatory markers and were persistently higher in ICU patients and non-survivors compared to non-ICU patients and survivors, respectively (both p < .001), whereas no such relationships were found for the other adipocytokines. In conclusion, leptin and adiponectin are associated with BMI, but not with clinical outcomes and inflammation in COVID-19 patients. In contrast, resistin is not associated with BMI, but high concentrations are associated with worse clinical outcomes and more pronounced inflammation. Therefore, it is unlikely that BMI-related adipocytokines or differences in the inflammatory response underlie obesity as a risk factor for severe COVID-19.

9.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(11): e712, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A major contributor to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression and severity is a dysregulated innate and adaptive immune response. Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is an IL-1 family member with broad anti-inflammatory properties, but thus far little is known about its role in viral infections. Recent studies have shown inconsistent results, as one study finding an increase in circulating IL-38 in COVID-19 patients in comparison to healthy controls, whereas two other studies report no differences in IL-38 concentrations. METHODS: Here, we present an exploratory, retrospective cohort study of circulating IL-38 concentrations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to two Dutch hospitals (discovery n = 148 and validation n = 184) and age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Plasma IL-38 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, disease-related proteins by proximity extension assay, and clinical data were retrieved from hospital records. RESULTS: IL-38 concentrations were stable during hospitalization and similar to those of healthy control subjects. IL-38 was not associated with rates of intensive care unit admission or mortality. Only in men in the discovery cohort, IL-38 concentrations were positively correlated with hospitalization duration. A positive correlation between IL-38 and the inflammatory biomarker d-dimer was observed in men of the validation cohort. In women of the validation cohort, IL-38 concentrations correlated negatively with thrombocyte numbers. Furthermore, plasma IL-38 concentrations in the validation cohort correlated positively with TNF, TNFRSF9, IL-10Ra, neurotrophil 3, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, CHL1, CD244, superoxide dismutase 2, and fatty acid binding protein 2, and negatively with SERPINA12 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that IL-38 is not associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, moderate correlations between IL-38 concentrations and biomarkers of disease were identified in one of two cohorts. While we demonstrate that IL-38 concentrations are not indicative of COVID-19 severity, its anti-inflammatory effects may reduce COVID-19 severity and should be experimentally investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serpins , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Interleukins
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination can potentially reduce the rate of respiratory infections in vulnerable populations. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of VPM1002 (a genetically modified BCG) as prophylaxis against severe respiratory tract infections including COVID-19 in an elderly population. METHODS: In this phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial, healthy elderly volunteers (n = 2064) were enrolled, randomized (1:1) to receive either VPM1002 or placebo, and followed up remotely for 240 days. The primary outcome was the mean number of days with severe respiratory infections at hospital and/or at home. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of self-reported fever, number of hospital and ICU admissions, and number of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 31 participants in the VPM1002 group reported at least 1 day with severe respiratory disease and a mean number of days with severe respiratory disease of 9.39 ± 9.28 days while in the placebo group, 38 participants reported a mean of 14.29 ± 16.25 days with severe respiratory disease. The incidence of self-reported fever was lower in the VPM1002 group (odds ratio: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.74; p-value: 0.001) and consistent trends to less hospitalization and ICU admissions due to COVID-19 were observed after VPM1002-vaccination. Local reactions typical for BCG were observed in the VPM1002-vaccinated group, which were mostly of mild intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with VPM1002 is well tolerated and seems to have a prophylactic effect against severe respiratory diseases in the elderly. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04435379).

11.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0023123, 2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240915

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, large differences in susceptibility and mortality due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported between populations in Europe and South Asia. While both host and environmental factors (including Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination) have been proposed to explain this, the potential biological substrate of these differences is unknown. We purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals living in India and the Netherlands at baseline and 10 to 12 weeks after BCG vaccination. We compared chromatin accessibility between the two populations at baseline, as well as gene transcription profiles and cytokine production capacities upon stimulation. The chromatin accessibility of genes important for adaptive immunity was higher in the Indians than in the Europeans, while the latter had more accessible chromatin regions in genes of the innate immune system. At the transcriptional level, we observed that the Indian volunteers displayed a more tolerant immune response to stimulation, in contrast to a more exaggerated response in the Europeans. BCG vaccination strengthened the tolerance program in the Indians but not in the Europeans. These differences may partly explain the different impact of COVID-19 on the two populations. IMPORTANCE In this study, we assessed the differences in immune responses in individuals from India and Europe. This aspect is of great relevance, because of the described differences in morbidity and mortality between India and Europe during the pandemic. We found a significant difference in chromatin accessibility in immune cells from the two populations, followed by a more balanced and effective response in individuals from India. These exciting findings represent a very important piece of the puzzle for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic at a global level.

12.
Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2232000

ABSTRACT

Objectives To test whether BCG vaccination would reduce the incidence of COVID-19 and other respiratory tract infections in older adults with one or more comorbidities. Methods Community-dwelling adults over 60 years old with one or more underlying comorbidities and no contra-indications for BCG vaccination were randomized 1:1 to BCG or placebo vaccination and followed for six months. The primary endpoint was self-reported test-confirmed COVID-19 incidence. Secondary endpoints included COVID-19 hospital admissions and clinically relevant RTI (i.e. RTI including but not limited to COVID-19 requiring medical intervention). COVID-19 and clinically relevant RTI episodes were adjudicated. Incidences were compared using Fine and Gray regression, accounting for competing events. Results A total of 6,112 participants with a median age of 69 years (inter-quartile range 65-74) and median of 2 (inter-quartile range 1-3) comorbidities were randomized to BCG (n=3,058) or placebo (n=3,054) vaccination. COVID-19 infections were reported by 129 BCG recipients compared to 115 placebo recipients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.12;95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.44). COVID-19-related hospitalization occurred in 18 BCG and 21 placebo recipients (HR 0.86;95% CI 0.46-1.61). During the study period 13 BCG recipients compared to 18 placebo recipients died (HR 0.71;95% CI 0.35 - 1.43) of which 11 deaths (35%) were COVID-19 related six in the placebo group and five in the BCG group. Clinically relevant RTI was reported by 66 BCG and 72 placebo recipients (HR 0.92;95% CI 0.66-1.28). Conclusion BCG vaccination does not protect older adults with comorbidities against COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization or clinically relevant RTI.

13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2226961

ABSTRACT

Live attenuated vaccines could have beneficial, non-specific effects of protecting against vaccine-unrelated infections, such as BCG protecting against respiratory infection. During the COVID-19 pandemic, testing of these effects against COVID-19 was of interest to the pandemic control programme. Non-specific effects occur due to the broad effects of specific live attenuated vaccines on the host immune system, relying on heterologous lymphocyte responses and induction of trained immunity. Knowledge of non-specific effects has been developed in randomised controlled trials and observational studies with children, but examining of whether the same principles apply to adults and older adults was of interest to researchers during the pandemic. In this Personal View, we aim to define a framework for the analysis of non-specific effects of live attenuated vaccines against vaccine-unrelated infections with pandemic potential using several important concepts. First, study endpoints should prioritise severity of infection and overall patient health rather than incidence of infection only (eg, although several trials found no protection of the BCG vaccine against COVID-19 infection, it is associated with lower overall mortality than placebo). Second, revaccination of an individual with the same live attenuated vaccine could be the most effective strategy against vaccine-unrelated infections. Third, coadministration of several live attenuated vaccines might enhance beneficial non-specific effects. Fourth, the sequence of vaccine administration matters; the live attenuated vaccine should be the last vaccine administered before exposure to the pandemic infection and non-live vaccines should not be administered afterwards. Fifth, live attenuated vaccines could modify the immune response to specific COVID-19 vaccines. Finally, non-specific effects of live attenuated vaccines should always be analysed with subgroup analysis by sex of individuals receiving the vaccines.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 985938, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224770

ABSTRACT

This proof-of-concept study tested if prior BCG revaccination can qualitatively and quantitively enhance antibody and T-cell responses induced by Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1nCoV-19 or COVISHIELD™, an efficacious and the most widely distributed vaccine in India. We compared COVISHIELD™ induced longitudinal immune responses in 21 BCG re-vaccinees (BCG-RV) and 13 BCG-non-revaccinees (BCG-NRV), all of whom were BCG vaccinated at birth; latent tuberculosis negative and SARS-CoV-2 seronegative prior to COVISHIELD™ vaccination. Compared to BCG-NRV, BCG-RV displayed significantly higher and persistent spike-specific neutralizing (n) Ab titers and polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells for eight months post COVISHIELD™ booster, including distinct CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IFN-γ- effector memory (EM) subsets co-expressing IL-2, TNF-α and activation induced markers (AIM) CD154/CD137 as well as CD8+IFN-γ+ EM,TEMRA (T cell EM expressing RA) subset combinations co-expressing TNF-α and AIM CD137/CD69. Additionally, elevated nAb and T-cell responses to the Delta mutant in BCG-RV highlighted greater immune response breadth. Mechanistically, these BCG adjuvant effects were associated with elevated markers of trained immunity, including higher IL-1ß and TNF-α expression in CD14+HLA-DR+monocytes and changes in chromatin accessibility highlighting BCG-induced epigenetic changes. This study provides first in-depth analysis of both antibody and memory T-cell responses induced by COVISHIELD™ in SARS-CoV-2 seronegative young adults in India with strong evidence of a BCG-induced booster effect and therefore a rational basis to validate BCG, a low-cost and globally available vaccine, as an adjuvant to enhance heterologous adaptive immune responses to current and emerging COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Young Adult , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Chromatin , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity , Interleukin-2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccination
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(6): 781-788, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To test whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination would reduce the incidence of COVID-19 and other respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in older adults with one or more comorbidities. METHODS: Community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older with one or more underlying comorbidities and no contraindications to BCG vaccination were randomized 1:1 to BCG or placebo vaccination and followed for 6 months. The primary endpoint was a self-reported, test-confirmed COVID-19 incidence. Secondary endpoints included COVID-19 hospital admissions and clinically relevant RTIs (i.e. RTIs including but not limited to COVID-19 requiring medical intervention). COVID-19 and clinically relevant RTI episodes were adjudicated. Incidences were compared using Fine-Gray regression, accounting for competing events. RESULTS: A total of 6112 participants with a median age of 69 years (interquartile range, 65-74) and median of 2 (interquartile range, 1-3) comorbidities were randomized to BCG (n = 3058) or placebo (n = 3054) vaccination. COVID-19 infections were reported by 129 BCG recipients compared to 115 placebo recipients [hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% CI, 0.87-1.44]. COVID-19-related hospitalization occurred in 18 BCG and 21 placebo recipients (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.46-1.61). During the study period, 13 BCG recipients died compared with 18 placebo recipients (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.35-1.43), of which 11 deaths (35%) were COVID-19-related: six in the placebo group and five in the BCG group. Clinically relevant RTI was reported by 66 BCG and 72 placebo recipients (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.66-1.28). DISCUSSION: BCG vaccination does not protect older adults with comorbidities against COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization, or clinically relevant RTIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BCG Vaccine , Vaccination , Hospitalization , Incidence
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 982746, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198859

ABSTRACT

Background: Even during long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), people living with HIV (PLHIV) have a dysregulated immune system, characterized by persistent immune activation, accelerated immune ageing and increased risk of non-AIDS comorbidities. A multi-omics approach is applied to a large cohort of PLHIV to understand pathways underlying these dysregulations in order to identify new biomarkers and novel genetically validated therapeutic drugs targets. Methods: The 2000HIV study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study of PLHIV on cART. In addition, untreated HIV spontaneous controllers were recruited. In-depth multi-omics characterization will be performed, including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metagenomics, functional immunological assays and extensive immunophenotyping. Furthermore, the latent viral reservoir will be assessed through cell associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA, and full-length individual proviral sequencing on a subset. Clinical measurements include an ECG, carotid intima-media thickness and plaque measurement, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis measurement as well as psychological symptoms and recreational drug questionnaires. Additionally, considering the developing pandemic, COVID-19 history and vaccination was recorded. Participants return for a two-year follow-up visit. The 2000HIV study consists of a discovery and validation cohort collected at separate sites to immediately validate any finding in an independent cohort. Results: Overall, 1895 PLHIV from four sites were included for analysis, 1559 in the discovery and 336 in the validation cohort. The study population was representative of a Western European HIV population, including 288 (15.2%) cis-women, 463 (24.4%) non-whites, and 1360 (71.8%) MSM (Men who have Sex with Men). Extreme phenotypes included 114 spontaneous controllers, 81 rapid progressors and 162 immunological non-responders. According to the Framingham score 321 (16.9%) had a cardiovascular risk of >20% in the next 10 years. COVID-19 infection was documented in 234 (12.3%) participants and 474 (25.0%) individuals had received a COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The 2000HIV study established a cohort of 1895 PLHIV that employs multi-omics to discover new biological pathways and biomarkers to unravel non-AIDS comorbidities, extreme phenotypes and the latent viral reservoir that impact the health of PLHIV. The ultimate goal is to contribute to a more personalized approach to the best standard of care and a potential cure for PLHIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Prospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Longitudinal Studies , Multiomics
17.
J Clin Invest ; 133(2)2023 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194488

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, has resulted in much human suffering and societal disruption. The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against COVID-19 has had a crucial role in the fight against the pandemic. While ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has been shown to induce adaptive B and T cell responses, which protect against COVID-19, in this issue of the JCI, Murphy et al. show that this vaccine also induces trained innate immunity. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the complex immunological effects of adenoviral-based vaccines, provides the possibility of clinically relevant heterologous effects of these vaccines, and suggests that other adenoviral-based vaccines may induce trained immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Trained Immunity , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adaptive Immunity
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e067251, 2022 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193801

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a major cause of death among hospitalised patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that immune response during sepsis cascade lies within a spectrum of dysregulated host responses. On the one side of the spectrum there are patients whose response is characterised by fulminant hyperinflammation or macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS), and on the other side patients whose immune response is characterised by immunoparalysis. A sizeable group of patients are situated between the two extremes. Recognising immune endotype is very important in order to choose the appropriate immunotherapeutic approach for each patient resulting in the best chance to improve the outcome. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ImmunoSep is a randomised placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial with a double-dummy design in which the effect of precision immunotherapy on sepsis phenotypes with MALS and immunoparalysis is studied. Patients are stratified using biomarkers. Specifically, 280 patients will be 1:1 randomly assigned to placebo or active immunotherapy as adjunct to standard-of-care treatment. In the active immunotherapy arm, patients with MALS will receive anakinra (recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) intravenously, and patients with immunoparalysis will receive subcutaneous recombinant human interferon-gamma. Τhe primary endpoint is the comparative decrease of the mean total Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score by at least 1.4 points by day 9 from randomisation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol is approved by the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices; the National Ethics Committee of Greece and by the National Organization for Medicines of Greece; the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects and METC Oost Netherland for the Netherlands; the National Agency for Medicine and Medical Products of Romania; and the Commission Cantonale d'éthique de la recherche sur l'être human of Switzerland. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04990232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Double-Blind Method , Sepsis/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Immunotherapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 56: 101785, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165232

ABSTRACT

Background: The SAVE-MORE trial demonstrated that anakinra treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia with plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) levels of 6 ng/mL or more was associated with 0.36 odds for a worse outcome compared to placebo when expressed by the WHO-Clinical Progression Scale (CPS) at day 28. Herein, we report the results of subgroup analyses and long-term outcomes. Methods: This prospective, double-blind, randomised clinical trial, recruited patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, in need of hospitalisation, lower respiratory tract infection and plasma suPAR ≥6 ng/mL from 37 academic and community hospitals in Greece and Italy. Patients were 1:2 randomised to subcutaneous treatment with placebo or anakinra (100 mg) once daily for 10 days. Pre-defined subgroups of Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), sex, age, level of suPAR, and time from symptom onset were analysed for the primary endpoint (overall comparison of distribution of frequencies of the scores from the WHO-CPS between treatments on day 28), by multivariable ordinal regression analysis in the intention to treat (ITT) population. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (2020-005828-11) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04680949). Findings: Patients were enrolled between 23 December 2020 and 31 March 2021; 189 patients in the placebo arm and 405 patients in the anakinra arm were the ITT population. Multivariable analysis showed that anakinra treatment was accompanied by significantly lower odds for worse outcome compared to placebo at day 28 for all studied subgroups (CCI ≥ 2, OR: 0.34, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.22-0.50; CCI < 2, OR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.68; suPAR > 9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.66; suPAR 6-9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.24-0.52; patients ≥65 years, OR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.66; and patients <65 years, OR: 0.29, 95% CI 0.19-0.45). The benefit was uniform, irrespective of the time from start of symptoms until the start of the study drug. At days 60 and 90, anakinra treatment had odds of 0.40 (95% CI 0.28-0.57) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.32-0.67) respectively, for a worse outcome compared to placebo. The costs of general ward stay, ICU stay, and drugs were lower with anakinra treatment. Interpretation: Anakinra represents an important therapeutic tool in the management of COVID-19 that may be administered in all subgroups of patients; benefits are maintained until day 90. Funding: Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis; Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB.

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