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1.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504861

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify the spectrum of disease in children with COVID-19, and the risk factors for admission in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We conducted a multicentre, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 76 Spanish hospitals. We included children with COVID-19 or multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) younger than 18 years old, attended during the first year of the pandemic. We enrolled 1200 children. A total of 666 (55.5%) were hospitalised, and 123 (18.4%) required admission to PICU. Most frequent major clinical syndromes in the cohort were mild syndrome (including upper respiratory tract infection and flu-like syndrome, skin or mucosae problems and asymptomatic), 44.8%; bronchopulmonary syndrome (including pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma flare), 18.5%; fever without a source, 16.2%; MIS-C, 10.6%; and gastrointestinal syndrome, 10%. In hospitalised children, the proportions were 28.5%, 25.7%, 16.5%, 19.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Risk factors associated with PICU admission were age in months (OR: 1.007; 95% CI 1.004 to 1.01), MIS-C (OR: 14.4, 95% CI 8.9 to 23.8), chronic cardiac disease (OR: 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 13), asthma or recurrent wheezing (OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) and after excluding MIS-C patients, moderate/severe liver disease (OR: 8.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 47.6). However, asthmatic children were admitted into the PICU due to MIS-C or pneumonia, not due to asthma flare.Conclusion: Hospitalised children with COVID-19 usually present as one of five major clinical phenotypes of decreasing severity. Risk factors for PICU include MIS-C, elevation of inflammation biomarkers, asthma, moderate or severe liver disease and cardiac disease. What is Known: • All studies suggest that children are less susceptible to serious SARS-CoV-2 infection when compared to adults. Most studies describe symptoms at presentation. However, it remains unclear how these symptoms group together into clinically identifiable syndromes and the severity associated with them. What is New: • We have gathered the primary diagnoses into five major syndromes of decreasing severity: MIS-C, bronchopulmonary syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, fever without a source and mild syndrome. Classification of the children in one of the syndromes is unique and helps to assess the risk of critical illness and to define the spectrum of the disease instead of just describing symptoms and signs.

3.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody dynamics over time after SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear, and data regarding children are scarce. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed including children infected by SARS-CoV-2 between March and May 2020. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: children admitted with COVID-19; outpatient children with mild COVID-19; and seropositive children participating in a seroprevalence study among cohabitants of infected healthcare workers (HCWs). Six months after the infection, a new serological control was performed. RESULTS: A total of 58 children were included, 50% male (median age 8.3 [IQR 2.8-13.5] years). The median time between the two serological studies was 186 (IQR 176-192) days, and 86% (48/56) of the children maintained positive IgG six months after the infection. This percentage was 100% in admitted patients and 78% among the rest of the included children (p = 0.022). The diagnoses of lower respiratory tract infection and multisystemic inflammatory syndrome were associated with persistence of IgG (p = 0.035). The children of HCWs in the seroprevalence study lost antibodies more often (p = 0.017). Initial IgG titers of the children who remained positive six months after the infection were significantly higher (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Most children infected by SARS-CoV-2 maintain a positive serological response six months after the infection. Those children who lost their IgG titer were more frequently asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, presenting with low antibody titers after the infection.

4.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(9): 1608-1620, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A hyperinflammatory immune-mediated shock syndrome has been recognised in children exposed to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To describe typical imaging findings in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, imaging studies and clinical data from children treated for multisystem inflammatory syndrome were collected from multiple centres. Standardised case templates including demographic, biochemical and imaging information were completed by participating centres and reviewed by paediatric radiologists and paediatricians. RESULTS: We included 37 children (21 boys; median age 8.0 years). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 15/37 (41%) children and immunoglobulins in 13/19 children (68%). Common clinical presentations were fever (100%), abdominal pain (68%), rash (54%), conjunctivitis (38%) and cough (32%). Thirty-three children (89%) showed laboratory or imaging findings of cardiac involvement. Thirty of the 37 children (81%) required admission to the intensive care unit, with good recovery in all cases. Chest radiographs demonstrated cardiomegaly in 54% and signs of pulmonary venous hypertension/congestion in 73%. The most common chest CT abnormalities were ground-glass and interstitial opacities (83%), airspace consolidation (58%), pleural effusion (58%) and bronchial wall thickening (42%). Echocardiography revealed impaired cardiac function in half of cases (51%) and coronary artery abnormalities in 14%. Cardiac MRI showed myocardial oedema in 58%, pericardial effusion in 42% and decreased left ventricular function in 25%. Twenty children required imaging for abdominal symptoms, the commonest abnormalities being free fluid (71%) and terminal ileum wall thickening (57%). Twelve children underwent brain imaging, showing abnormalities in two cases. CONCLUSION: Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome showed pulmonary, cardiac, abdominal and brain imaging findings, reflecting the multisystem inflammatory disease. Awareness of the imaging features of this disease is important for early diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(5): e185-e188, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children living with healthcare workers (HCWs) are scarce. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary Hospital in Madrid, including children of HCW who suffered from SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and May 2020. Children underwent enzyme-linked immunosorbent serological study for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies: VIRCELL IgG assay. RESULTS: One hundred thirteen children from 69 HCWs with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited: 47 children had positive IgG (41.6%). Children secondary attack rate was 43.7% (25% if both parents have had asymptomatic infection; 39.5% if one parent was symptomatic; and 47% when both parents had symptoms). Having a positive sibling was associated with a positive IgG result (odds ratio = 12.2; 95% confidence interval: 4.4-33.7, P < 0.001). Median age was higher in IgG positive children (P = 0.022). Children who referred anosmia presented higher IgG titles (P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a very high SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children of HCW during the first pandemic wave, especially when both parents were symptomatic. Having a positive sibling was associated with seroconversion, supporting the important role of family clusters in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Family , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Spain/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
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