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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320912

ABSTRACT

To slow down the spread of the COVID-19 virus, schools around the world were closed in early 2020, transferring children’s scholastic activities to the homes and imposing a massive burden on parents and school-aged children. Using data of a 21-day diary study conducted between March and April 2020 in Germany, this work examined whether a) distance learning and b) parents’ involvement therein were associated with negative parent-child interactions and affective well-being of parents and children, over and above the effect of daily stressors. Participants were 562 parents (489 mothers, Mage = 42.79, SDage = 6.12, range = 25-63) most of whom were married (n = 382, 68.0%). They responded to the daily items with respect to the youngest child living in their household (Mage = 9.74, SDage = 2.81, range = 6-19). On days when children were working on school tasks, parents reported more negative parent-child interactions as well as lower parental and child positive affect and higher child negative affect, but not higher parental negative affect. Moreover, days when parents were more heavily involved in learning (i.e., when children worked less independently) were days with more negative parent-child interactions, lower parental and child positive affect, and higher parental and child negative affect. Negative parent-child interactions were linked to lower affective well-being of parents and children, and partially accounted for the relation among daily stressors and affective well-being. The present work highlights the need for measures to better support school-aged children and their parents during distance learning.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320911

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study investigated how COVID-19-related media exposure during the COVID-19 crisis was related to same-day and next-day COVID-19-related worries. Design: A 21-day diary study was conducted between late March and late April 2020 in Germany. Main Outcome Measures: Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 561 participants (Mage = 42.79, SDage = 6.12). Every evening, participants indicated their exposure to COVID-19-related media (e.g., TV, print, online) and their COVID-19-related worries. Results: Same-day analyses showed that participants reported more COVID-19-related worries on days with higher exposure to COVID-19-related media. Dynamical structural equation models provided evidence for a reciprocal cycle across days: Higher media exposure at one day predicted higher worries the next day, and higher worries at one day also predicted higher media exposure the next day. Individuals with high trait anxiety reported an enhanced general level of media exposure during the 21 days of assessment, and individuals high in neuroticism and anxiety reported an enhanced level of worries. Conclusion: These findings suggest a self-reinforcing cycle whereby consuming crisis-related media and worrying reciprocally influence each other across days, possibly amplifying adverse effects of the COVID-19 crisis and other crises alike on mental and physical health.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317877

ABSTRACT

This study examined effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well-being across three weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Day-to-day associations among autonomy-supportive parenting, need fulfillment, and child well-being were also assessed. Parents (longitudinal N=469;Mage=42.93, SDage=6.40) of school children (6-19 years) reported on adjustment measures at two measurement occasions and filled in up to 21 daily online questionnaires in the three weeks between these assessments. Results from dynamic structural equation models suggested reciprocal positive relations among autonomy-supportive parenting and parental need fulfillment. Daily parental autonomy support, need fulfillment, and child well-being partially predicted change in adjustment measures highlighting the central role of daily parenting for children’s adjustment during the pandemic.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307352

ABSTRACT

Intro: When confronted with major threats such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people often experience (temporary) decline in well-being. The central purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms underlying stability and change of well-being in times of threat like the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined change in mental health symptoms and its relationships with appraisals of the pandemic and daily life experiences during the pandemic, including affective states, stress, and mindfulness. Methods: We conducted a study across 3.5 weeks, including pretest, posttest, and a diary phase in-between. In this report, we worked with a sample of 460 adults, pre- and post-test information, as well as a total of 7189 observations from the diary phase. Results: Results showed that less fortunate change in mental health symptoms across three weeks was predicted by more negative affect and less mindfulness, specifically less attention to the present moment, in daily life. Furthermore, less fortunate change in mental health symptoms was correlated with change towards less fortunate appraisals of the appraisals. Finally, we showed that more general views of the pandemic (i.e., appraisals) were interrelated to experiences in daily life, with more negative appraisals of the pandemic predicting more negative affect and stressor occurrence as well as less mindfulness. Discussion: These findings speak to the dynamic nature of well-being and appraisals in times of threat, and they show how experiences in daily life matter for change in well-being

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307048

ABSTRACT

As a means to counter the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, schools were closed throughout Germany between mid-March and end of April 2020. Schooling was translocated to the students’ homes and students were supposed to work on learning tasks provided by their teachers. Students’ self-regulation and attributes of the learning tasks may be assumed to have played important roles when adapting to this novel schooling situation. They may be predicted to have influenced students’ daily self-regulation and hence the independence with which they worked on learning tasks. The present work therefore investigated the role of students' trait self-regulation as well as task difficulty and task enjoyment for students’ daily independence from their parents in learning during the homeschooling period. Data on children’s trait self-regulation were obtained through a baseline questionnaire filled in by the parents of 535 children (Mage = 9.69, SDage = 2.80). Parents additionally reported about the daily task difficulty, task enjoyment, and students’ learning independence through 21 consecutive daily online questionnaires. The results showed students’ trait self-regulation to be positively associated with their daily learning independence. Additionally, students’ daily learning independence was shown to be negatively associated with task difficulty and positively with task enjoyment. The findings are discussed with regard to students’ daily self-regulation during the homeschooling period.

6.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1719-1734, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527991

ABSTRACT

To slow down the spread of the COVID-19 virus, schools around the world were closed in early 2020, transferring children's scholastic activities to the homes and imposing a massive burden on parents and school-age children. Using data of a 21-day diary study conducted between March and April 2020 in Germany, this work examined whether (a) distance learning and (b) parents' involvement therein were associated with negative parent-child interactions and affective well-being of parents and children, over and above the effect of daily stressors. Participants were 562 parents (489 mothers, Mage = 42.79, SDage = 6.12, range = 25-63) most of whom were married (n = 382, 68.0%). They responded to the daily items with respect to the youngest child living in their household (Mage = 9.74, SDage = 2.81, range = 6-19). On days when children were working on school tasks, parents reported more negative parent-child interactions as well as lower parental and child positive affect and higher child negative affect, but not higher parental negative affect. Moreover, days when parents were more heavily involved in learning (i.e., when children worked less independently) were days with more negative parent-child interactions, lower parental and child positive affect, and higher parental and child negative affect. Negative parent-child interactions were linked to lower affective well-being of parents and children, and partially accounted for the relation among daily stressors and affective well-being. The present work highlights the need for measures to better support school-age children and their parents during distance learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5417, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410404

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens/immunology , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/immunology
10.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2917-2923, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356548

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in elder patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication of COVID-19 and has been linked with severe hyperinflammation. Dexamethasone has emerged as standard of care for COVID-19 associated respiratory failure. In a non-randomized prospective phase II multi-center study, we asked whether targeted inhibition of Janus kinase-mediated cytokine signaling using ruxolitinib is feasible and efficacious in SARS-CoV-2- induced ARDS with hyperinflammation. Sixteen SARS-CoV-2 infected patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS were treated with ruxolitinib in addition to standard treatment. Ruxolitinib treatment was well tolerated and 13 patients survived at least the first 28 days on treatment, which was the primary endpoint of the trial. Immediate start of ruxolitinib after deterioration was associated with improved outcome, as was a lymphocyte-to-neutrophils ratio above 0.07. Together, treatment with the janus-kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib is feasible and might be efficacious in COVID-19 induced ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The trial has been registered under EudraCT-No.: 2020-001732-10 and NCT04359290.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles , Prognosis , Pyrimidines , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Survival Rate
11.
Psychol Health ; : 1-15, 2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how COVID-19-related media exposure during the COVID-19 crisis was related to same-day and next-day COVID-19-related worries. DESIGN: A 21-day diary study was conducted between late March and late April 2020 in Germany. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 561 participants (Mage = 42.79, SDage = 6.12). Every evening, participants indicated their exposure to COVID-19-related media (e.g., TV, print, online) and their COVID-19-related worries. RESULTS: Same-day analyses showed that participants reported more COVID-19-related worries on days with higher exposure to COVID-19-related media. Dynamical structural equation models provided evidence for a reciprocal cycle across days: Higher media exposure at one day predicted higher worries the next day, and higher worries at one day also predicted higher media exposure the next day. Individuals with high trait anxiety reported an enhanced general level of media exposure during the 21 days of assessment, and individuals high in neuroticism and anxiety reported an enhanced level of worries. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a self-reinforcing cycle whereby consuming crisis-related media and worrying reciprocally influence each other across days, possibly amplifying adverse effects of the COVID-19 crisis and other crises alike on mental and physical health.

12.
Z Erziehwiss ; 24(2): 367-391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169026

ABSTRACT

As a means to counter the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic, schools were closed throughout Germany between mid-March and end of April 2020. Schooling was translocated to the students' homes where students were supposed to work on learning tasks provided by their teachers. Students' self-regulation and attributes of the learning tasks may be assumed to have played important roles when adapting to this novel schooling situation. They may be predicted to have influenced students' daily self-regulation and hence the independence with which they worked on learning tasks. The present work investigated the role of students' trait self-regulation as well as task difficulty and task enjoyment for students' daily independence from their parents in learning during the homeschooling period. Data on children's trait self-regulation were obtained through a baseline questionnaire filled in by the parents of 535 children (M age  = 9.69, SD age  = 2.80). Parents additionally reported about the daily task difficulty, task enjoyment, and students' learning independence through 21 consecutive daily online questionnaires. The results showed students' trait self-regulation to be positively associated with their daily learning independence. Additionally, students' daily learning independence was shown to be negatively associated with task difficulty and positively with task enjoyment. The findings are discussed with regard to students' daily self-regulation during the homeschooling period. Finally, implications for teaching practice during the pandemic-related school closures are derived.

13.
Child Dev ; 92(5): 1679-1697, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035453

ABSTRACT

This study examined the effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well-being across 3 weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Day-to-day associations among autonomy-supportive parenting, parental need fulfillment, and child well-being were also assessed. Parents (longitudinal N = 469; Mage  = 42.93, SDage  = 6.40) of school children (6-19 years) reported on adjustment measures at two measurement occasions and completed up to 21 daily online questionnaires in the weeks between these assessments. Results from dynamic structural equation models suggested reciprocal positive relations among autonomy-supportive parenting and parental need fulfillment. Daily parental autonomy support, parental need fulfillment, and child well-being partially predicted change in adjustment measures highlighting the central role of daily parenting for children's adjustment during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child Health , Humans , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
J Pers ; 89(3): 468-482, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: When confronted with major threats, people often experience decline in well-being. The central purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms underlying change of well-being in times of threat, using the example of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on appraisals of the pandemic and affective states, stress, as well as mindfulness in daily life. METHOD: We conducted a study across 3.5 weeks, including pretest, posttest, and a diary phase in-between. We worked with a sample of 460 adults, pre- and post-test information, as well as 7,189 observations from the diary phase. RESULTS: Results showed that deterioration in mental health symptoms across the duration of the study was associated with (a) change towards less fortunate appraisals of the pandemic and (b), more negative affect and less mindfulness in daily life. Furthermore, appraisals of the pandemic at pretest predicted experiences in daily life, with more negative appraisals of the pandemic predicting more negative affect and stressor occurrence as well as less mindfulness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings speak to the dynamic nature of well-being and appraisals in times of threat, and highlight the role of experiences in daily life in changes in well-being.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms/physiopathology , Behavioral Symptoms/psychology , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Life Change Events , Mindfulness , Personal Satisfaction , Adult , Affective Symptoms/physiopathology , Affective Symptoms/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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