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J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2098-2107, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269289


BACKGROUND: Markedly elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and defective type-I interferon responses were reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether particular cytokine profiles are associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Cytokine concentrations and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antigen were measured at hospital admission in serum of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 (N = 115), classified at hospitalization into 3 respiratory severity groups: no need for mechanical ventilatory support (No-MVS), intermediate severity requiring mechanical ventilatory support (MVS), and critical severity requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Principal-component analysis was used to characterize cytokine profiles associated with severity and mortality. The results were thereafter confirmed in an independent validation cohort (N = 86). RESULTS: At time of hospitalization, ECMO patients presented a dominant proinflammatory response with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. In contrast, an elevated type-I interferon response involving IFN-α and IFN-ß was characteristic of No-MVS patients, whereas MVS patients exhibited both profiles. Mortality at 1 month was associated with higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines in ECMO patients, higher levels of type-I interferons in No-MVS patients, and their combination in MVS patients, resulting in a combined mortality prediction accuracy of 88.5% (risk ratio, 24.3; P < .0001). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antigen levels correlated with type-I interferon levels and were associated with mortality, but not with proinflammatory response or severity. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct cytokine profiles are observed in association with COVID-19 severity and are differentially predictive of mortality according to oxygen support modalities. These results warrant personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients based on cytokine profiling.

COVID-19 , Cytokines/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
Allergy ; 75(11): 2829-2845, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526792


BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is accelerating worldwide, and novel clinical presentations of COVID-19 are often reported. The range of human cells and tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2, its potential receptors and associated regulating factors are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors and related molecules in the extensive collection of primary human cells and tissues from healthy subjects of different age and from patients with risk factors and known comorbidities of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), and CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and plasmablasts. We analyzed the material from healthy children and adults, and from adults in relation to their disease or COVID-19 risk factor status. RESULTS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA andPPIB), CD26 (DPP4), and related molecules were expressed in both epithelium and in immune cells. We also observed a distinct age-related expression profile of these genes in the PBMCs and T cells from healthy children and adults. Asthma, COPD, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and male gender status generally led to the higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the bronchial biopsy, BAL, or blood. Additionally, CD147-related genes correlated positively with age and BMI. Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest different receptor repertoire potentially involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection at the epithelial barriers and in the immune cells. Altered expression of these receptors related to age, gender, obesity and smoking, as well as with the disease status, might contribute to COVID-19 morbidity and severity patterns.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Basigin/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/immunology , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult