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1.
Coronaviruses ; 2(4):496-506, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2273995

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe viral pneumonia cases were observed in the people of Wuhan, China in December 2019. It has already affected almost every country around the globe and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. We aim to evaluate the therapeutics and safety of various off label COVID-19 drugs. Method(s): PubMed, Research Gate, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Centre for Disease control and prevention (CDC) portal, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and prevention (CCDC) portal, World Health Organization (WHO) portal were searched for obtaining reliable data. Result(s): COVID-19 is creating a storm of deaths and active cases globally, which is forcing the pharmaceutical companies and scientists to work day and night to find an effective and safer anti-COVID-19 medication. Various in vitro and clinical trials had been performed as well as are currently ongoing to analyze the mechanisms and therapeutics of off label medications like Chloroquine, Hydroxychloro-quine, Amodiaquine, Azithromycin, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Ritonavir/Lopinavir, Umifenovir, Osel-tamivir, Ribavirin, Nafamostat, Camostat, Tocilizumab, Ivermectin, Nitazoxanide, Famotidine, Vitamin D, Corticosteroids and Dexamethasone. In vitro studies were performed by utilizing Vero E6 cells and hSLAM cells while open/closed, randomized/non-randomized, single-centered/multi-centered and retrospective clinical trials and case studies were organized to determine their safety and efficacy. Conclusion(s): Although these drugs have shown promising results against COVID-19 patients, it cannot be concluded that these drugs are truly safe and effective because there are no conclusive evidence to support the facts since only limited researches and studies had been investigated.Copyright © 2021 Bentham Science Publishers.

2.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 12(9):4580-4587, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1404114

ABSTRACT

The noble coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 results in a devastating, multisystem disease among which COVID-19 pneumonia creates serious complications and most of COVID-19 related deaths. COVID-19 patients develop a systemic inflammatory response through interleukin (IL) and tumor necrosis factors. In COVID-19 patients, cytokine storm controlling is the key step for treatment because cytokine attacks own body cells instead of fighting with the virus. We reviewed several literatures to summarize the safety and efficacy of LD-RT in COVID-19 patients. Low dose chest radiation may reduce the inflammation in the lungs in severely ill patients. The radiation offset an immune system called AS a cytokine storm. Several randomized/non-randomized, single/multi-centered, open/close clinical trials are underway in U.S, India, Iran and around the globe. Early studies showed LD-RT reduces the inflammatory cytokines, time of hospitalization, duration of ventilation, and a number of deaths. However, some researchers warned for radiation-induced cancer (lung, breast, and esophageal) and cardiovascular diseases. So, further extensive preclinical studies should be conducted to identify the risk-benefit ratio in COVID-19 patients.

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