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Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(4): 1809-1814, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413674


BACKGROUND: A total of 62/66 (93.9%) residents in a senior citizen home in Bremen, Germany, received the first dose of the Biontech/Pfizer vaccine BNT162b2 on December 27th 2020. After routine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen tests showed positive results on January 5th, all residents and staff were tested by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Nine staff members and 23 residents had a positive result. PCR positive staff members reported mild to severe COVID-19 symptoms, one was hospitalized. None of them had been vaccinated. In contrast, the vaccinated residents reported no or only mild symptoms. Sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of infected individuals revealed a monophyletic origin of the outbreak within the PANGO lineage B.1.177.86. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our data show that partial vaccination prevented severe COVID-19 among the residents during this local SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, suggesting a high effectiveness of even a single vaccine dose, but also emphasize that asymptomatic individuals might still be carriers/spreaders.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks , Germany , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
TH Open ; 5(1): e43-e55, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075296


COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients often show excessive activation of coagulation, associated with increased risk of thrombosis. However, the diagnostic value of coagulation at initial clinical evaluation is not clear. We present an in-depth analysis of coagulation in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected COVID-19. N = 58 patients with clinically suspected COVID-19 in the ED were enrolled. N = 17 subsequently tested positive using SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swabs, while in n = 41 COVID-19 was ruled-out. We analyzed both standard and extended coagulation parameters, including thromboplastin time (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), antithrombin, plasminogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimers, and fibrinogen at admission, as well as α2-antiplasmin, activated protein C -resistance, factor V, lupus anticoagulant, protein C, protein S, and von Willebrand diagnostics. These data, as well as mortality and further laboratory parameters, were compared across groups based on COVID-19 diagnosis and severity of disease. In patients with COVID-19, we detected frequent clotting abnormalities, including D-dimers. The comparison cohort in the ED, however, showed similarly altered coagulation. Furthermore, parameters previously shown to distinguish between severe and moderate COVID-19 courses, such as platelets, plasminogen, fibrinogen, aPTT, INR, and antithrombin, as well as multiple nonroutine coagulation analytes showed no significant differences between patients with and without COVID-19 when presenting to the ED. At admission to the ED the prevalence of coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19 is high, yet comparable to the non-COVID-19 cohort presenting with respiratory symptoms. Nevertheless, coagulopathy might worsen during disease progression with the need of subsequent risk stratification.

Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694631


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myelopoiesis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD11 Antigens/genetics , CD11 Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/cytology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Proteome/genetics , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , Single-Cell Analysis