We compared retention in care outcomes between a pre-COVID-19 (Apr19-Mar20) and an early-COVID-19 (Apr20-Mar21) period to determine whether the pandemic had a significant impact on these outcomes and assessed the role of patient sociodemographics in both periods in individuals enrolled in the Data for Care Alabama project (n = 6461). Using scheduled HIV primary care provider visits, we calculated a kept-visit measure and a missed-visit measure and compared them among the pre-COVID-19 and early-COVID-19 periods. We used logistic regression models to calculated odds ratios (OR) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, individuals had lowers odds of high visit constancy [OR (95% CI): 0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and higher odds of no-shows [OR (95% CI): 1.27 (1.19, 1.35)] during the early-COVID-19 period. Compared to white patients, Black patients were more likely to miss an appointment and transgender people versus cisgender women had lower visit constancy in the early-COVID-19 period.
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid expansion of telehealth as part of healthcare delivery. This study compared HIV-related no-shows by visit type (in-person; video; telephone) during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020-September 2021) from the Data for Care Alabama project. Using all primary care provider visits, each visit's outcome was categorized as no-show or arrived. A logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations accounting for repeat measures in individuals and within sites calculated odds ratios (OR) and their accompanying 95% confidence interval (CI) for no-shows by visit modality. The multivariable models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. In-person versus telephone visits [OR (95% CI) 1.64 (1.48-1.82)] and in-person versus video visits [OR (95% CI) 1.53 (1.25-1.85)] had higher odds of being a no-show. In-person versus telephone and video no-shows were significantly higher. This may suggest success of telehealth visits as a method for HIV care delivery even beyond COVID-19.