Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 73
Filter
1.
Am J Primatol ; 14(4): 329-343, 1988.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968913

ABSTRACT

This study was an initial attempt to analyze quantitatively vocalizations from the Central American squirrel monkey, Saimiri oerstedi. Vocalizations were recorded in the wild at P. N. Corcovado (S. o. oerstedi). and at P. N. Manuel Antonio (S. o. citrinellus). Additional recordings were made from captive individuals of both subspecies. The acoustic structure of analyzed vocalizations resembled most closely the vocal repertoire of South American Saimiri with the "gothic arch" phenotype, in agreement with the prominent gothic arch facial pattern of S. oerstedi. New structural subtypes of the twitter ("dog-tooth twitter") and the chuck ("bent-mast chuck") not previously found in an extensive library of South American Saimiri sound spectrograms were documented. Calls used by older infants when socially separated and when approaching an adult male were essentially identical (sharing typical "isolation peep" structural features) but had significantly different duration and peak frequency. Analysis of recordings from an escaped captive female calling outside her compound over a 3-day period indicated the presence of numerous structural intermediates between typical chuck, twitter, and peep calls.

2.
Am J Primatol ; 30(1): 37-54, 1993.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941179

ABSTRACT

Captive adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) produce whistle-like "phee" calls in two contexts; in the home cage environment, phee calls may function as part of territorial marking behavior, and when animals are separated from social companions, phee calls may serve to reunite the group. Isolation phee calls tend to have more syllables than calls produced in the home cage by the same animals, and as a result, are longer in duration. The durations of isolation call syllables are shorter than in home cage calls, and isolation calls have lower start and end frequencies, higher peak frequencies, and increased frequency range compared to phee calls produced by the same animals in their home cages. The modifications made to the general structure of the phee call by isolated animals result in more information that may indicate context or location of an isolated caller. When the vocalizations were analyzed by sex, between-sex differences in call structure appeared consistently in both contexts. Males tended to exhibit higher call frequencies and greater variability between syllables than females. Published 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

3.
Am J Primatol ; 33(1): 15-29, 1994.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936925

ABSTRACT

Captive adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) produce whistlelike "phee" calls in two contexts: in the home cage, where phee calls may function as part of territorial marking behavior, and when separated from social companions, where phee calls may function to reunite conspecifics. Natural and synthesized calls representing the acoustic structure of male and female calls in each context were presented to adult marmosets in a playback paradigm. Marmosets demonstrated discriminative abilities according to the context of the call and the caller's sex. Vocal and behavioral responses indicated increased vigilance and territorial behavior, following playbacks of naturally produced calls as well as synthetic calls. All animals scanned more frequently following produced calls as well as synthetic calls. All animals scanned more frequently following natural home cage as well as isolation calls, but only increased contact behavior (trills) in response to home cage calls. The responses were dimorphic according to the sex of the caller, where adult males scanned more following male calls, and adult females were more aggressive following male and female calls. The differential behavioral responses to playbacks of marmoset phee calls suggest a biological relevance to subtle differences found in the acoustic parameters of the phee call. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This article is a US Government work and, as such, in the public domain in the United States of America.

4.
Plant Cell Rep ; 17(2): 102-108, 1997 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732396

ABSTRACT

This report describes the disarming of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Chry5, a strain highly tumorigenic on soybean. Disarming was achieved by removing an approximately 16.5-kb segment of the 285-kb Ti plasmid pTiChry5, including approximately 4 kb of the oncogenic T-DNA and an extended region right of the T-DNA, and replacing it with a gene for carbenicillin resistance, through homologous recombination. The deletion was confirmed with Southern analysis, and the loss of tumorigenicity was verified in tobacco and tomato plant stem inoculation assays. The deletion mutant, named KYRT1, successfully transferred the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into tobacco leaf tissue, producing GUS-expressing callus which could be regenerated into viable plants. In a comparative study, the transformation efficiency of A. tumefaciens KYRT1, GV3850, and EHA105 was assayed by inoculating cotyledonary node explants. The results of this study revealed that, in a binary vector system, KYRT1 is equally or more effective than EHA105 or GV3850 at delivering DNA into soybean.

5.
Nature ; 496(7446): 528-32, 2013 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23575629

ABSTRACT

In 2010 there were more than 200 million cases of malaria, and at least 655,000 deaths. The World Health Organization has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide with potent antimalarial properties, produced by the plant Artemisia annua. However, the supply of plant-derived artemisinin is unstable, resulting in shortages and price fluctuations, complicating production planning by ACT manufacturers. A stable source of affordable artemisinin is required. Here we use synthetic biology to develop strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) for high-yielding biological production of artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin. Previous attempts to produce commercially relevant concentrations of artemisinic acid were unsuccessful, allowing production of only 1.6 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Here we demonstrate the complete biosynthetic pathway, including the discovery of a plant dehydrogenase and a second cytochrome that provide an efficient biosynthetic route to artemisinic acid, with fermentation titres of 25 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Furthermore, we have developed a practical, efficient and scalable chemical process for the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin using a chemical source of singlet oxygen, thus avoiding the need for specialized photochemical equipment. The strains and processes described here form the basis of a viable industrial process for the production of semi-synthetic artemisinin to stabilize the supply of artemisinin for derivatization into active pharmaceutical ingredients (for example, artesunate) for incorporation into ACTs. Because all intellectual property rights have been provided free of charge, this technology has the potential to increase provision of first-line antimalarial treatments to the developing world at a reduced average annual price.


Subject(s)
Artemisinins/metabolism , Artemisinins/supply & distribution , Biosynthetic Pathways , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Antimalarials/economics , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Antimalarials/metabolism , Antimalarials/supply & distribution , Artemisinins/chemistry , Artemisinins/economics , Artemisinins/isolation & purification , Biotechnology , Fermentation , Genetic Engineering , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Molecular Sequence Data , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Singlet Oxygen/metabolism
6.
Ir Med J ; 101(9): 277-8, 2008 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19051616

ABSTRACT

The objective was to design a protocol to assess work ability in people suffering ill-defined painful and disabling disorders, the outstanding prototype of which is fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome (FM/CSF).Following an extensive literature search, the mos appropriate components of current methods of assessment of physical and cognitive abilities were incorporated into the protocol, occasionally with appropriate modification to suit the specific requirements of the individual. The initial part of the assessment consists of a standard history taking, principally focusing on the patient's self-reported physical and cognitive abilities and disabilities, as well as the completion of established pain and fatigue scales, and relevant disability questionnaires. Following this, physical and cognitive abilities are objectively assessed on two separate occasions, utilizing computerized hand-held dynamometers, inclinometers, algometers, and force dynamometers. Specific work simulation tests using the industrial standards Methods-Time-Measurement testing are availed of, as is aerobic testing using the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT). Objective computerised neuro-cognitive testing are also utilised as an integral component of the assessment. All results are then subject to specific computerized analysis and compared to normative and standardised work-based databases. The designed system produces reliable, consistent and reproducible results. It also proves capable of detecting any inconsistencies in patient input and results, in addition to being independent of any possible assessor bias. A new protocol has been designed to determine the working capability of individuals who suffer from various chronic disabling conditions, and represents a significant step forward in a difficult but rapidly expanding area of medical practice.


Subject(s)
Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Fibromyalgia/complications , Pain/etiology , Work Capacity Evaluation , Chronic Disease , Databases as Topic , Disability Evaluation , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/physiopathology , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Health Status Indicators , Health Surveys , Humans , Pain Measurement , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Anal Chem ; 79(9): 3448-54, 2007 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17378539

ABSTRACT

We report on the creation of a high surface area, chemically selective material for the efficient adsorption of organophosphate and organophosphonate species. Using silica microparticles in conjunction with gold nanoparticles and surface modification chemistry, we have demonstrated a material with a binding constant for organophosphonates and organophosphates (OPPs) of K=2x10(6) M-1. The binding of OPPs to the modified gold nanoparticles appears as a spectral shift in the gold nanoparticle resonance. The sensitivity of this technique is limited by scattering losses of suspensions of the particles, and we report on how this sensitivity can be recovered to a significant extent by the use of solvents with a refractive index close to that of the silica particles.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Optics and Photonics , Organophosphates/analysis , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Colloids/chemical synthesis , Colloids/chemistry , Electrodes , Gels/chemistry , Particle Size , Surface Properties
8.
Langmuir ; 22(13): 5882-7, 2006 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16768524

ABSTRACT

We report on the use of amines as reducing agents in the formation of gold nanoparticles. We can predict whether the amines will function as reducing agents in this reaction based on their redox properties. The kinetics of AuNP formation can be understood in terms of Marcus electron transfer theory, where the slower reactions proceed in the inverted region owing to the difference between the Au reduction potential and the amine oxidation potential. For a certain number of the amine reducing agents, following reduction of HAuCl4, a subsequent reaction of the amine radical cation with other reducing agent molecules in solution can form poly(amine)s. These findings point collectively to the utility of amines as reducing agents in AuNP formation and provide information on the conditions under which these reactions will proceed.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Amines , Drug Stability , Electrochemistry , Kinetics , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Reducing Agents , Spectrophotometry
9.
Med Device Technol ; 13(4): 12-5, 2002 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12066331

ABSTRACT

There is a possible major shake-up on the way in blood glucose monitoring. Sales of disposable electrochemical biosensors now reach approximately US$2.5 billion per annum. However, there are numerous rival technologies on the horizon, which threaten this leading position. These offer the potential to monitor noninvasively or with minimal discomfort. Success in developing any of these has the potential to change the future of self-testing of glucose and many other analytes.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/economics , Humans , United States
10.
J Mol Biol ; 313(3): 485-99, 2001 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11676534

ABSTRACT

The Rhodobacter sphaeroides extra cytoplasmic function sigma factor, sigma(E), directs transcription of promoters for the cycA gene (cycA P3) and the rpoEchrR operon (rpoE P1). These genes encode the periplasmic electron carrier cytochrome c(2) and sigma(E)/ChrR, respectively. Using in vitro transcription assays with purified R. sphaeroides core RNA polymerase and sigma(E), we show that ChrR is sufficient to inhibit sigma(E)-dependent transcription. Inhibition is proposed to proceed through a binding interaction, since sigma(E) and ChrR form a 1:1 complex that can be purified when expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Active preparations of ChrR and the sigma(E)/ChrR complex each contain stoichiometric zinc. Removal of zinc from ChrR or a single amino acid substitution that abolishes zinc binding, results in a protein that is incapable of inhibiting sigma(E) activity or forming a complex with the sigma factor, indicating that metal binding is important to ChrR activity. Treatment of ChrR with the thiol-modifying reagent p-hydroxymecuriphenylsulfonic acid results in the release of about one mole of zinc per mole of protein. Furthermore, two N-terminal cysteine residues are protected from reaction with the thiol-specific reagent dithionitrobenzoic acid until zinc is removed, suggesting that these residues may be involved in zinc binding. These data indicate that ChrR is a specific anti-sigma factor of sigma(E) that requires zinc for function. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, we propose that ChrR is part of a family of similar anti-sigma factors that are found in alpha and gamma proteobacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Rhodobacter sphaeroides , Sigma Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Zinc/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cysteine/genetics , Cysteine/metabolism , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism , Dithionitrobenzoic Acid/metabolism , Metalloproteins/chemistry , Metalloproteins/genetics , Metalloproteins/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Mapping , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genetics , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sigma Factor/metabolism , Transcription Factors/chemistry , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription, Genetic
11.
Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci ; 39(2): 22-6, 2000 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11487235

ABSTRACT

We investigated the use of artificial turf foraging boards to determine if providing captive squirrel monkeys an opportunity for semi-natural foraging behavior would 1) alter the monkeys' time budget to better approximate that seen in wild populations, 2) reduce the stereotypic, self-injurious, and aggressive behavior occasionally seen in captive squirrel monkeys, and 3) provide sustained enrichment. Five groups of pair-housed female squirrel monkeys were videotaped the week prior to, the week following, and for 2 weeks during the enrichment phase, when treat-enhanced boards were provided for 2 h daily. During the first 30 min of daily enrichment, inactivity declined 35.3%, locomotion increased 3.8%, and board-related behaviors occupied 36.3% of the activity budget; these changes were not evident after 1.5 h. Stereotypic behavior (pacing, headswinging, tailchewing) and aggression were not altered by the foraging opportunity. The foraging board retained the interest of the subjects across 2 weeks in the same daily pattern. Use of the foraging board altered the squirrel monkeys' time budget to become more like activity patterns seen in wild populations.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry/methods , Animal Welfare , Appetitive Behavior , Environment Design , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Saimiri/physiology , Animals , Female , Food Preferences , Locomotion/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology
12.
Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci ; 40(3): 26-9, 2001 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11353521

ABSTRACT

The impact of a foraging enrichment device, the "mealworm feeder," on the behavior of the common marmoset was examined. In 3-h weekly exposures to the wormfeeder device, behavioral observations were conducted to compare the rates of feeder use, use of other enrichment devices, stereotyped behavior, and inactivity, to those of control sessions in which the enrichment device was not provided. Significantly decreased rates of pacing and time spent sitting still were observed in association with placement of the mealworm feeder. Feeder use declined over a period of 3 h, even if the feeders' contents were not fully depleted, and the effects of enrichment on activity waned in a like fashion. Use of other enrichment devices, comprised primarily of cage furniture, increased in the presence of the mealworm feeder. This effect did not change significantly over the 3 h of exposure even though use of the feeder declined. There was significant variation in feeder use among sex and housing condition, with females housed singly and in peer groups using the feeders significantly more than did males, whereas subadults used the feeder significantly more often than did either the dominant female or male in family groups. The results of this study suggest that the mealworm feeder is an effective form of environmental enrichment for the common marmoset, but interest wanes after approximately 3 h.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Animal , Callithrix/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Animals , Environment , Female , Housing, Animal , Male , Tenebrio
13.
Physiol Behav ; 72(5): 713-20, 2001 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11337003

ABSTRACT

Alloparental behavior (parental behavior directed to nondescendant young) is pervasive among human cultures but rare among other mammals. New World primates of the family Callitrichidae, including common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), dwell in large families and many family members carry and/or provision infants. This study experimentally characterized alloparenting in common marmosets by measuring infant retrieval and carrying outside of the context of the family group. Prolactin was measured in samples collected before and after infant exposure to determine whether elevated prolactin levels were predictive of alloparental responsiveness. Seventeen nonbreeding, parentally inexperienced, singly or peer-housed common marmosets (10 females, 7 males, 6-66 months of age) were tested repeatedly in an infant retrieval paradigm. Infant retrieval was shown by 5 out of 17 monkeys (29%) in their first test. The rate of retrieval increased to 10 monkeys (59%) by the fourth test. No significant differences in age, sex, or housing condition existed between monkeys that retrieved infants and those not retrieving. Prolactin concentrations were significantly elevated in serum obtained after testing only in monkeys that retrieved infants. Prolactin levels after infant exposure were positively related to carrying duration. A separate experiment verified that neither prolactin nor cortisol was significantly elevated in response to prolonged handling. Cortisol levels were inversely proportional to handling time. Prolactin levels were not significantly related to handling time. Our results indicate that alloparental behavior is expressed at high rates after minimal infant experience, and prolactin levels rise concomitantly with the expression of alloparental behavior in this species.


Subject(s)
Maternal Behavior/physiology , Parity/physiology , Prolactin/blood , Aging/psychology , Animals , Callithrix , Female , Handling, Psychological , Hormones/blood , Hydrocortisone/blood , Male
14.
Horm Behav ; 39(2): 106-12, 2001 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11243738

ABSTRACT

The influence of prolactin on parental responsiveness was investigated in eight unpaired, parentally inexperienced common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; 6 female, 2 male). The marmosets were prescreened with infants (1-10 days of age) and required to exhibit short latency retrieval and infant carrying in at least three consecutive pretests as criterion for inclusion in this study. The marmosets were then administered the dopamine agonist bromocriptine (0.5 mg/0.5ml vehicle subcutaneously) and the vehicle alone (0.5 ml 10% ethanol solution) twice daily for 3 consecutive days in random order. Bromocriptine treatment reduced circulating prolactin to nondetectable levels. Bromocriptine treatment eliminated infant retrieval in four of the eight marmosets and was associated with significantly increased retrieval latencies and significantly reduced carrying durations in the four monkeys that continued to retrieve following bromocriptine treatment. When given the vehicle alone, the marmosets retrieved infants significantly faster than during pretests, suggesting a handling effect of the injection series. Bromocriptine treatments were associated with significantly increased movement during the tests. The results of this study indicate that prolactin and/or its regulatory neurotransmitters are involved in the control of the spontaneous display of parental responsiveness in common marmosets.


Subject(s)
Bromocriptine/pharmacology , Hormone Antagonists/pharmacology , Maternal Behavior/drug effects , Paternal Behavior , Prolactin/blood , Aging/psychology , Animals , Callithrix , Depression, Chemical , Female , Male , Sex Characteristics , Social Behavior
15.
J Mol Biol ; 294(2): 307-20, 1999 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10610760

ABSTRACT

Rhodobacter sphaeroides rpoE encodes a 19.2 kDa protein, sigma(E), related to members of the extra-cytoplasmic function subfamily of eubacterial RNA polymerase sigma factors. We demonstrate that sigma(E) directs transcription from rpoE P1, the promoter for the rpoEchrR operon, and from cycA P3, a promoter for the cytochrome c2 structural gene. Comparison of these sigma(E)-dependent promoters reveals significant sequence conservation in their -35 and -10 regions; however, rpoE P1 is over 80-fold stronger than cycA P3. Both promoters contain identical -35 hexamers, (-36)TGATCC(-31), that appear to constitute the preferred sequence, since any single base mutation in this region of cycA P3 reduces promoter function. The higher activity of rpoE P1 appears to reflect a better -10 region, (-13)TAAGA(-9), as it contains four out of five of the nucleotides found to be important to sigma(E)-dependent transcription. We also propose that ChrR acts as an inhibitor of sigma(E), since these two proteins can form a complex, and DeltachrR mutations increase sigma(E)-dependent transcription. ChrR is believed to respond to a signal from tetrapyrrole biosynthesis because loss of function mutations in chrR lead to cohemin resistance. Based on our observations, we present a model in which cohemin resistance is conferred by increasing sigma(E) activity.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cytochrome c Group/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genetics , Sigma Factor/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Base Sequence , Cytoplasm/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , DNA Mutational Analysis , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Heme/pharmacology , Hemin , Histidine/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Point Mutation , Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/drug effects , Sigma Factor/drug effects , Sigma Factor/metabolism , Transcription Factors/drug effects , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic
16.
Depress Anxiety ; 10(3): 99-104, 1999.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10604082

ABSTRACT

While parenting is a universal human behavior, its neuroanatomic basis is currently unknown. Animal data suggest that the cingulate may play an important function in mammalian parenting behavior. For example, in rodents cingulate lesions impair maternal behavior. Here, in an attempt to understand the brain basis of human maternal behavior, we had mothers listen to recorded infant cries and white noise control sounds while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain. We hypothesized that mothers would show significantly greater cingulate activity during the cries compared to the control sounds. Of 7 subjects scanned, 4 had fMRI data suitable for analysis. When fMRI data were averaged for these 4 subjects, the anterior cingulate and right medial prefrontal cortex were the only brain regions showing statistically increased activity with the cries compared to white noise control sounds (cluster analysis with one-tailed z-map threshold of P < 0.001 and spatial extent threshold of P < 0.05). These results demonstrate the feasibility of using fMRI to study brain activity in mothers listening to infant cries and that the anterior cingulate may be involved in mothers listening to crying babies. We are currently replicating this study in a larger group of mothers. Future work in this area may help (1) unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the parent-infant bond and (2) examine whether markers of this bond, such as maternal brain response to infant crying, can predict maternal style (i.e., child neglect), offspring temperament, or offspring depression or anxiety.


Subject(s)
Crying/psychology , Gyrus Cinguli/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Maternal Behavior/physiology , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Prefrontal Cortex/physiology , Adult , Crying/physiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Gyrus Cinguli/anatomy & histology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Mother-Child Relations , Object Attachment , Pilot Projects , Prefrontal Cortex/anatomy & histology
17.
Am J Primatol ; 49(2): 165-81, 1999 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10466575

ABSTRACT

Captive common marmosets of all ages robustly produce a "separation" phee call during brief separations from their group. In contrast, a second structural variant, which may function as an intergroup call, is produced in the home cage primarily by the reproductive adults. A previous study found that postpubertal but nonreproductive offspring rarely produce phee calls when in the home cage with the natal group, yet these marmosets call frequently after pairing with an opposite-sex partner. The sudden increase in home cage phee calls may indicate the rapid onset of intergroup calling. Alternatively, marmosets may be producing the separation phee variant as a result of separation from the natal group. The present study investigated whether phee calls produced by recently paired individuals in the home cage were structurally distinguishable from their calls recorded in a separation paradigm. We also tested whether sex differences, known to exist in the calls of mature adults, could be found in calls recorded from younger, nonreproductive animals separated from their natal groups. We analyzed 18 acoustic parameters of phee calls produced in the home cage after pairing and of calls produced during separation both from the natal group and from a new mate. Discriminant function analyses found that home cage calls were clearly discriminable from separation calls (average 91.7% correctly classified), indicating that the rapid increase in home cage phee call production shortly after pairing is not a consequence of separation from the family group. Postpubertal marmosets appear to show a rapid behavioral adjustment to separation from their natal groups. Additionally, sex was clearly discriminable in calls recorded both before and after pairing (average 86.8% correctly classified). Like calls recorded from well-established paired marmosets, phee calls produced by recently paired, postpubertal marmosets are discriminable by context and sex.


Subject(s)
Callithrix/psychology , Social Behavior , Vocalization, Animal , Animals , Auditory Perception , Female , Male , Sex Factors , Sexual Behavior, Animal
19.
Psychosom Med ; 61(2): 243-9, 1999.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10204978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The longitudinal association between blood pressure (BP) reactivity to a video game and resting BP 3 to 4 years later was investigated in 83 Samoan adolescents from American and (Western) Samoa as part of a multidisciplinary study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in modern Samoans. METHODS: Participants ranged in age from 11 to 14 years at baseline, in 1992 to 1993, and 14 to 18 years at follow-up in 1996. Video game BP reactivity was defined as the residual score of the regression of the maximum BP during the video game on the minimum resting BP before the video game. The predictive effect of baseline video game BP reactivity on follow-up resting BP was tested using regression models with baseline resting BP, baseline body mass index (BMI), and age as covariates. RESULTS: Systolic BP reactivity to the video game at baseline was significantly, p=.04, and independently associated with resting systolic BP 3 to 4 years later. Samoan adolescents who had higher systolic BP reactivity scores at baseline had significantly higher resting systolic BP at follow-up after adjustment for the significant effects of baseline resting systolic BP, age, and BMI. There were no interactions between sex and reactivity or between residence, American Samoa or (Western) Samoa, and reactivity in the models, indicating that the effects of systolic BP reactivity in early adolescence on later adolescent resting systolic BP were similar in the entire study sample. CONCLUSIONS: Video game cardiovascular reactivity seems to assess aspects of psychophysiological arousal and prospective CVD risk in Samoan adolescents of both sexes residing in both Samoas, and may be useful for understanding the role of psychosocial stress and health in modernizing societies.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Heart Rate/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Samoa/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , United States
20.
Am J Primatol ; 47(3): 209-22, 1999.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10075435

ABSTRACT

In socially-bonding species, separation from familiar attachment figures is widely known to stimulate a physiological and behavioral stress response. This study investigated the hormonal and vocal responses of adult common marmosets to separation from familiar group members and to 24 hr of cohabitation with an unfamiliar opposite-sex conspecific. All subjects were removed from their home cages and placed into a novel environment for 20 min. In one group, marmosets were exposed to an unfamiliar, opposite-sex partner in the novel environment and remained paired with this partner for the 24 hr test period. In three other groups, marmosets experienced the novel environment alone and subsequently were returned to their original social- or single-housing condition, or kept separate from their social groups for a 24 h period. Blood samples were collected the day before, and at 30 min, 90 min, and at 24 h after separation. Cortisol responses were differentially affected by the length of separation and the presence of unfamiliar conspecifics. Brief separation followed by the return to the social group had minimal effect on plasma cortisol levels. All marmosets produced high levels of separation calls in the novel environment, but there was no apparent relationship between calling and cortisol levels. The lack of a temporal relationship between the production of distress vocalizations and serum cortisol has previously been noted in squirrel monkey and rhesus monkey infant separation studies; the behavioral and physiological responses to separation appear to be similarly dissociated in the marmoset. Further, the characteristics of a separation environment can differentially affect the hormonal response by adult marmosets without differentially affecting their behavioral response.


Subject(s)
Callithrix/psychology , Social Behavior , Stress, Psychological , Vocalization, Animal , Animals , Female , Hydrocortisone/blood , Male
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL