Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43
Filter
1.
Antiviral Res ; : 105253, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629343

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) has exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic. End of November 2021, a new SARS-CoV-2 variant namely the omicron (B.1.1.529) emerged. Since this omicron variant is heavily mutated in the spike protein, WHO classified this variant as the 5th variant of concern (VoC). We previously demonstrated that the ancestral strain and the other SARS-CoV-2 VoCs replicate efficiently in and cause a COVID19-like pathology in Syrian hamsters. We here wanted to explore the infectivity of the omicron variant in comparison to the ancestral D614G strain in the hamster model. Strikingly, in hamsters that had been infected with the omicron variant, a 3 log10 lower viral RNA load was detected in the lungs as compared to animals infected with D614G and no infectious virus was detectable in this organ. Moreover, histopathological examination of the lungs from omicron-infected hamsters revealed no signs of peri-bronchial inflammation or bronchopneumonia.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010161, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622377

ABSTRACT

The global response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now facing new challenges such as vaccine inequity and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Preclinical models of disease, in particular animal models, are essential to investigate VOC pathogenesis, vaccine correlates of protection and postexposure therapies. Here, we provide an update from the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 modeling expert group (WHO-COM) assembled by WHO, regarding advances in preclinical models. In particular, we discuss how animal model research is playing a key role to evaluate VOC virulence, transmission and immune escape, and how animal models are being refined to recapitulate COVID-19 demographic variables such as comorbidities and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295991

ABSTRACT

All currently used first-generation COVID-19 vaccines are based on prototypic spike sequences from ancestral 2019 SARS-CoV-2 strains. However, it remains unclear to which extent vaccination protects against variants of concern (VOC) which fuel the ongoing pandemic. Here we show in a stringent hamster challenge model that immunization using prototypic spike expressed form a potent YF17D viral vector (Sanchez-Felipe et al. 2021) provides vigorous protection against infection with ancestral virus and VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7), however, is insufficient to provide optimal protection against the Beta (B.1.351) variant. To improve vaccine efficacy, a revised vaccine candidate was created that carries a modified spike antigen designed to cover the entire VOC spectrum. Vaccination of hamsters with this updated vaccine candidate provides full protection against intranasal challenge with all four VOC Alpha, Beta, Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) resulting in complete elimination of infectious virus from the lungs and a marked improvement in lung pathology. Vaccinated hamsters did also no longer transmit the Delta variant to non-vaccinated sentinels. Overall, our data indicate that current first-generation COVID-19 vaccines need to be urgently updated to cover emerging sequence diversity of VOCs to maintain vaccine efficacy and to impede virus spread at the community level.

4.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295926

ABSTRACT

We have identified camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-1 and −2, such as VHH72, which binds to a unique highly conserved epitope in the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) that is difficult to access for human antibodies. Here, we establish a protein engineering path for how a stable, long-acting drug candidate can be generated out of such a VHH building block. When fused to human IgG1-Fc, the prototype VHH72 molecule prophylactically protects hamsters from SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we demonstrate that both systemic and intranasal application protects hACE-2-transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2 induced lethal disease progression. To boost potency of the lead, we used structure-guided molecular modeling combined with rapid yeast-based Fc-fusion prototyping, resulting in the affinity-matured VHH72_S56A-Fc, with subnanomolar SARS-CoV-1 and −2 neutralizing potency. Upon humanization, VHH72_S56A was fused to a human IgG1 Fc with optimized manufacturing homogeneity and silenced effector functions for enhanced safety, and its stability as well as lack of off-target binding was extensively characterized. Therapeutic systemic administration of a low dose of VHH72_S56A-Fc antibodies strongly restricted replication of both original and D614G mutant variants of SARS-CoV-2 virus in hamsters, and minimized the development of lung damage. This work led to the selection of XVR011 for clinical development, a highly stable anti-COVID-19 biologic with excellent manufacturability. Additionally, we show that XVR011 is unaffected in its neutralizing capacity of currently rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants, and demonstrate its unique, wide scope of binding across the Sarbecovirus clades.

5.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295917

ABSTRACT

Effective therapies are needed to combat emerging viruses. Seventeen candidates that rescue cells from SARS-CoV-2-induced lethality and target diverse functions emerged in a screen of 4,413 compounds. Among the hits was lapatinib, an approved inhibitor of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Lapatinib and other pan-ErbB inhibitors suppress replication of SARS-CoV-2 and unrelated viruses with a high barrier to resistance. ErbB4, but not lapatinib’s cancer targets ErbB1 and ErbB2, is required for SARS-CoV-2 entry and encephalitis alphavirus infection and is a molecular target mediating lapatinib’s antiviral effect. In human lung organoids, lapatinib protects from SARS-CoV-2-induced activation of pathways implicated in non-infectious acute lung injury and fibrosis downstream of ErbBs (p38-MAPK, MEK/ERK, and AKT/mTOR), pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and epithelial barrier injury. These findings reveal regulation of viral infection, inflammation, and lung injury via ErbBs and propose approved candidates to counteract these effects with implications for pandemic coronaviruses and unrelated viruses.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293320

ABSTRACT

Treatment with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to COVID-19 management. Unfortunately, SARS-CoV-2 variants can escape several of these recently approved mAbs, highlighting the need for additional discovery and development. In a convalescent COVID-19 patient, we identified six mAbs, classified in four epitope groups, that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan, alpha, beta, gamma and delta infection in vitro. In hamsters, mAbs 3E6 and 3B8 potently cured infection with SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan, beta and delta when administered post-viral infection at 5 mg/kg. Even at 0.2 mg/kg, 3B8 still reduced viral titers. Intramuscular delivery of DNA-encoded 3B8 resulted in in vivo mAb production of median serum levels up to 90 ug/ml, and protected hamsters against delta infection. Overall, our data mark 3B8 as a promising candidate against COVID-19, and highlight advances in both the identification and gene-based delivery of potent human mAbs.

7.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293110

ABSTRACT

Current licensed COVID-19 vaccines are based on antigen sequences of initial SARS-CoV-2 isolates that emerged in 2019. By mid 2021 these historical virus strains have been completely replaced by new cosmopolitan SARS-CoV-2 lineages. The ongoing pandemic has been further driven by emerging variants of concern (VOC) Alpha, Beta, Gamma and, lately predominant, Delta. These are characterized by an increased transmissibility and possible escape from naturally acquired or vaccine-induced immunity. We here show, using a YF17D-vectored first-generation COVID-19 vaccine (Sanchez-Felipe et al., 2021) and a stringent hamster challenge model (Abdelnabi et al., 2021) that the immunity elicited by a prototypic spike antigen is insufficient to provide optimal protection against the Beta VoC, urging for an antigenic update. We therefore designed an updated second-generation vaccine candidate that carries the sequence of a spike antigen that includes crucial epitopes from multiple VOCs. This vaccine candidate yielded a marked change in target antigen spectrum covered as demonstrated by (i) antigenic cartography and (ii) full protection against infection and virus-induced disease caused by any of the four VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta) used for challenge. This more universal COVID-19 vaccine candidate also efficiently blocked direct transmission of VOC Delta from vaccinated infected hamsters to non-vaccinated sentinels under prolonged co-housing conditions. In conclusion, our data suggest that current first-generation COVID-19 vaccines need to be adapted to cover emerging sequence diversity of VOC to preserve vaccine efficacy and to contain virus spread at the community level.

8.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292298

ABSTRACT

Essential oils and aromatic extracts (oleoresins, absolutes, concretes, resinoids) are often used as food flavorings and constituents of fragrance compositions. The flavor and fragrance industry observes significant growth in sales of some natural materials during the COVID-19 outbreak. Some companies worldwide are making false claims regarding their essential oils or blends to be effective (or indirectly points towards this conclusion) against coronaviruses even though the available data on the activity of plant materials against highly pathogenic human coronaviruses is very scarce. Our exploratory study aimed to develop pioneering knowledge and provide the first experimental results on the inhibitory properties of hundreds of flavor & fragrance materials against SARS-CoV-2 main- and papain-like proteases, and antiviral potential of the most active protease inhibitors. As essential oils are volatile products, they could provide an interesting subsidiary inhalation therapeutic strategy in the long term.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6243, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493101

ABSTRACT

Understanding the pathology of COVID-19 is a global research priority. Early evidence suggests that the respiratory microbiome may be playing a role in disease progression, yet current studies report contradictory results. Here, we examine potential confounders in COVID-19 respiratory microbiome studies by analyzing the upper (n = 58) and lower (n = 35) respiratory tract microbiome in well-phenotyped COVID-19 patients and controls combining microbiome sequencing, viral load determination, and immunoprofiling. We find that time in the intensive care unit and type of oxygen support, as well as associated treatments such as antibiotic usage, explain the most variation within the upper respiratory tract microbiome, while SARS-CoV-2 viral load has a reduced impact. Specifically, mechanical ventilation is linked to altered community structure and significant shifts in oral taxa previously associated with COVID-19. Single-cell transcriptomics of the lower respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients identifies specific oral bacteria in physical association with proinflammatory immune cells, which show higher levels of inflammatory markers. Overall, our findings suggest confounders are driving contradictory results in current COVID-19 microbiome studies and careful attention needs to be paid to ICU stay and type of oxygen support, as bacteria favored in these conditions may contribute to the inflammatory phenotypes observed in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Microbiota/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome/genetics
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113494, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446590

ABSTRACT

In the search for new anti-influenza virus (IV) compounds, we have identified the 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (TZP) as a very suitable scaffold to obtain compounds able to disrupt IV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) PA-PB1 subunits heterodimerization. In this work, in order to acquire further SAR insights for this class of compounds and identify more potent derivatives, we designed and synthesized additional series of analogues to investigate the role of the substituents around the TZP core. To this aim, we developed four facile and efficient one-step procedures for the synthesis of 5-phenyl-, 6-phenyl- and 7-phenyl-2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and 2-amino-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ol. Two analogues having the ethyl carboxylate moiety at the C-2 position of the TZP were also prepared in good yields. Then, the scaffolds herein synthesized and two previous scaffolds were functionalized and evaluated for their anti-IAV activity, leading to the identification of compound 22 that showed both anti-PA-PB1 (IC50 = 19.5 µM) and anti-IAV activity (EC50 = 16 µM) at non-toxic concentrations, thus resulting among the most active TZP derivatives reported to date by us. A selection of the synthesized compounds, along with a set of in-house available analogues, was also tested against SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound 49 from this series displayed an EC50 value of 34.47 µM, highlighting the potential of the TPZ scaffold in the search for anti-CoV agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Vero Cells
11.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103595, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Favipiravir and Molnupiravir, orally available antivirals, have been reported to exert antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. First efficacy data have been recently reported in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We here report on the combined antiviral effect of both drugs in a SARS-CoV-2 Syrian hamster infection model. The infected hamsters were treated twice daily with the vehicle (the control group) or a suboptimal dose of each compound or a combination of both compounds. FINDINGS: When animals were treated with a combination of suboptimal doses of Molnupiravir and Favipiravir at the time of infection, a marked combined potency at endpoint is observed. Infectious virus titers in the lungs of animals treated with the combination are reduced by ∼5 log10 and infectious virus are no longer detected in the lungs of >60% of treated animals. When start of treatment was delayed with one day a reduction of titers in the lungs of 2.4 log10 was achieved. Moreover, treatment of infected animals nearly completely prevented transmission to co-housed untreated sentinels. Both drugs result in an increased mutation frequency of the remaining viral RNA recovered from the lungs of treated animals. In the combo-treated hamsters, an increased frequency of C-to-T mutations in the viral RNA is observed as compared to the single treatment groups which may explain the pronounced antiviral potency of the combination. INTERPRETATION: Our findings may lay the basis for the design of clinical studies to test the efficacy of the combination of Molnupiravir/Favipiravir in the treatment of COVID-19. FUNDING: stated in the acknowledgment.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lung/virology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
12.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109814, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433045

ABSTRACT

Control of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is endangered by the emergence of viral variants with increased transmission efficiency, resistance to marketed therapeutic antibodies, and reduced sensitivity to vaccine-induced immunity. Here, we screen B cells from COVID-19 donors and identify P5C3, a highly potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody with picomolar neutralizing activity against all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) identified to date. Structural characterization of P5C3 Fab in complex with the spike demonstrates a neutralizing activity defined by a large buried surface area, highly overlapping with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) surface necessary for ACE2 interaction. We further demonstrate that P5C3 shows complete prophylactic protection in the SARS-CoV-2-infected hamster challenge model. These results indicate that P5C3 opens exciting perspectives either as a prophylactic agent in immunocompromised individuals with poor response to vaccination or as combination therapy in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vaccination
13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 749-753, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411568

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) has exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently available monoclonal antibodies and vaccines appear to have reduced efficacy against some of these VoCs. Antivirals targeting conserved proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are unlikely to be affected by mutations arising in VoCs and should therefore be effective against emerging variants. We here investigate the efficacy of molnupiravir, currently in phase 2 clinical trials, in hamsters infected with Wuhan strain or B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. Molnupiravir proved to be effective against infections with each of the variants and therefore may have potential combating current and future emerging VoCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Mutation/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Science ; 373(6559): 1109-1116, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341301
16.
Antiviral Res ; 193: 105142, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321985

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, encodes its own mRNA capping machinery. Insights into this capping system may provide new ideas for therapeutic interventions and drug discovery. In this work, we employ a previously developed Py-FLINT screening approach to study the inhibitory effects of compounds against the cap guanine N7-methyltransferase enzyme, which is involved in SARS-CoV-2 mRNA capping. We screened five commercially available libraries (7039 compounds in total) to identify 83 inhibitors with IC50 < 50 µM, which were further validated using RP HPLC and dot blot assays. Novel fluorescence anisotropy binding assays were developed to examine the targeted binding site. The inhibitor structures were analyzed for structure-activity relationships in order to define common structural patterns. Finally, the most potent inhibitors were tested for antiviral activity on SARS-CoV-2 in a cell based assay.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleotidyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Caps , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Nature ; 597(7874): 103-108, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316713

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern1-10 and the recurrent spillovers of coronaviruses11,12 into the human population highlight the need for broadly neutralizing antibodies that are not affected by the ongoing antigenic drift and that can prevent or treat future zoonotic infections. Here we describe a human monoclonal antibody designated S2X259, which recognizes a highly conserved cryptic epitope of the receptor-binding domain and cross-reacts with spikes from all clades of sarbecovirus. S2X259 broadly neutralizes spike-mediated cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.427/B.1.429), as well as a wide spectrum of human and potentially zoonotic sarbecoviruses through inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding to the receptor-binding domain. Furthermore, deep-mutational scanning and in vitro escape selection experiments demonstrate that S2X259 possesses an escape profile that is limited to a single substitution, G504D. We show that prophylactic and therapeutic administration of S2X259 protects Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against challenge with the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant of concern, which suggests that this monoclonal antibody is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of emergent variants and zoonotic infections. Our data reveal a key antigenic site that is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies and will guide the design of vaccines that are effective against all sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Mesocricetus/immunology , Mesocricetus/virology , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
18.
Nature ; 597(7874): 97-102, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309448

ABSTRACT

An ideal therapeutic anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape1-3, have activity against diverse sarbecoviruses4-7, and be highly protective through viral neutralization8-11 and effector functions12,13. Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and guide vaccine design. Here we comprehensively characterize escape, breadth and potency across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Despite a trade-off between in vitro neutralization potency and breadth of sarbecovirus binding, we identify neutralizing antibodies with exceptional sarbecovirus breadth and a corresponding resistance to SARS-CoV-2 escape. One of these antibodies, S2H97, binds with high affinity across all sarbecovirus clades to a cryptic epitope and prophylactically protects hamsters from viral challenge. Antibodies that target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-binding motif (RBM) typically have poor breadth and are readily escaped by mutations despite high neutralization potency. Nevertheless, we also characterize a potent RBM antibody (S2E128) with breadth across sarbecoviruses related to SARS-CoV-2 and a high barrier to viral escape. These data highlight principles underlying variation in escape, breadth and potency among antibodies that target the RBD, and identify epitopes and features to prioritize for therapeutic development against the current and potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Male , Mesocricetus , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccinology
19.
Antiviral Res ; 193: 105127, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293551

ABSTRACT

In this study, a series of 10 quinoline analogues was evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against a panel of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2), as well as the human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were the most potent with antiviral EC50 values in the range of 0.12-12 µM. Chloroquine displayed the most favorable selectivity index (i.e. ratio cytotoxic versus antiviral concentration), being 165 for HCoV-OC43 in HEL cells. Potent anti-coronavirus activity was also observed with amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, although this was associated with substantial cytotoxicity for mefloquine. Primaquine, quinidine, quinine and tafenoquine only blocked coronavirus replication at higher concentrations, while piperaquine completely lacked antiviral and cytotoxic effects. A time-of-addition experiment in HCoV-229E-infected HEL cells revealed that chloroquine interferes with viral entry at a post-attachment stage. Using confocal microscopy, no viral RNA synthesis could be detected upon treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells with chloroquine. The inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine coincided with an inhibitory effect on the autophagy pathway as visualized by a dose-dependent increase in LC3-positive puncta. The latter effect was less pronounced or even absent with the other quinolines. In summary, we showed that several quinoline analogues, including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, exhibit broad anti-coronavirus activity in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Quinolines/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113494, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291451

ABSTRACT

In the search for new anti-influenza virus (IV) compounds, we have identified the 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (TZP) as a very suitable scaffold to obtain compounds able to disrupt IV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) PA-PB1 subunits heterodimerization. In this work, in order to acquire further SAR insights for this class of compounds and identify more potent derivatives, we designed and synthesized additional series of analogues to investigate the role of the substituents around the TZP core. To this aim, we developed four facile and efficient one-step procedures for the synthesis of 5-phenyl-, 6-phenyl- and 7-phenyl-2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and 2-amino-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ol. Two analogues having the ethyl carboxylate moiety at the C-2 position of the TZP were also prepared in good yields. Then, the scaffolds herein synthesized and two previous scaffolds were functionalized and evaluated for their anti-IAV activity, leading to the identification of compound 22 that showed both anti-PA-PB1 (IC50 = 19.5 µM) and anti-IAV activity (EC50 = 16 µM) at non-toxic concentrations, thus resulting among the most active TZP derivatives reported to date by us. A selection of the synthesized compounds, along with a set of in-house available analogues, was also tested against SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound 49 from this series displayed an EC50 value of 34.47 µM, highlighting the potential of the TPZ scaffold in the search for anti-CoV agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Vero Cells
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...