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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2946-e2951, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning immunity occurs in patients who have recovered from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether true re-infection occurs. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing was performed directly on respiratory specimens collected during 2 episodes of COVID-19 in a patient. Comparative genome analysis was conducted to differentiate re-infection from persistent viral shedding. Laboratory results, including RT-PCR Ct values and serum Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG, were analyzed. RESULTS: The second episode of asymptomatic infection occurred 142 days after the first symptomatic episode in an apparently immunocompetent patient. During the second episode, there was evidence of acute infection including elevated C-reactive protein and SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion. Viral genomes from first and second episodes belong to different clades/lineages. The virus genome from the first episode contained a a stop codon at position 64 of ORF8, leading to a truncation of 58 amino acids. Another 23 nucleotide and 13 amino acid differences located in 9 different proteins, including positions of B and T cell epitopes, were found between viruses from the first and second episodes. Compared to viral genomes in GISAID, the first virus genome was phylogenetically closely related to strains collected in March/April 2020, while the second virus genome was closely related to strains collected in July/August 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological, clinical, serological, and genomic analyses confirmed that the patient had re-infection instead of persistent viral shedding from first infection. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 may continue to circulate among humans despite herd immunity due to natural infection. Further studies of patients with re-infection will shed light on protective immunological correlates for guiding vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Genome, Viral , Humans , Reinfection , Whole Genome Sequencing
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 137-142, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291923

ABSTRACT

After 2 months of relative quiescence, a large coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak occurred in Hong Kong in July 2020 after gradual relaxation of social distancing policy. Unique severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) phylogenetic clusters have been identified among locally acquired cases, with most genomes belonging to cluster HK1, which is phylogenetically related to SARS-CoV-2 reported overseas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Hong Kong , Humans , Phylogeny
3.
J Gen Virol ; 102(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218064

ABSTRACT

Host cell lipids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of respiratory virus infection. However, a direct comparison of the lipidomic profile of influenza virus and rhinovirus infections is lacking. In this study, we first compared the lipid profile of influenza virus and rhinovirus infection in a bronchial epithelial cell line. Most lipid features were downregulated for both influenza virus and rhinovirus, especially for the sphingomyelin features. Pathway analysis showed that sphingolipid metabolism was the most perturbed pathway. Functional study showed that bacterial sphingomyelinase suppressed influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication, but promoted rhinovirus replication. These findings suggest that sphingomyelin pathway can be a potential target for antiviral therapy, but should be carefully evaluated as it has opposite effects on different respiratory viruses. Furthermore, the differential effect of sphingomyelinase on rhinovirus and influenza virus may explain the interference between rhinovirus and influenza virus infection.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Rhinovirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sphingomyelins/pharmacology , Animals , Bronchial Diseases/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Dogs , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human , Lipidomics , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167764

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR with pooled specimens has been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic as a cost- and manpower-saving strategy for large-scale testing. However, there is a paucity of data on the efficiency of different nucleic acid extraction platforms on pooled specimens. This study compared a novel automated high-throughput liquid-based RNA extraction (LRE) platform (PHASIFY™) with a widely used magnetic bead-based total nucleic acid extraction (MBTE) platform (NucliSENS® easyMAG®). A total of 60 pools of nasopharyngeal swab and 60 pools of posterior oropharyngeal saliva specimens, each consisting of 1 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 9 SARS-CoV-2 negative specimens, were included for the comparison. Real-time RT-PCR targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp/Hel gene was performed, and GAPDH RT-PCR was used to detect RT-PCR inhibitors. No significant differences were observed in the Ct values and overall RT-PCR positive rates between LRE and MBTE platforms (92.5% (111/120] vs. 90% (108/120]), but there was a slightly higher positive rate for LRE (88.3% (53/60]) than MBTE (81.7% (49/60]) among pooled saliva. The automated LRE method is comparable to a standard MBTE method for the detection of SAR-CoV-2 in pooled specimens, providing a suitable alternative automated extraction platform. Furthermore, LRE may be better suited for pooled saliva specimens due to more efficient removal of RT-PCR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/instrumentation
5.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 10: 100130, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral genomic surveillance is vital for understanding the transmission of COVID-19. In Hong Kong, breakthrough outbreaks have occurred in July (third wave) and November (fourth wave) 2020. We used whole viral genome analysis to study the characteristics of these waves. METHODS: We analyzed 509 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected from Hong Kong patients between 22nd January and 29th November, 2020. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses were performed, and were interpreted with epidemiological information. FINDINGS: During the third and fourth waves, diverse SARS-CoV-2 genomes were identified among imported infections. Conversely, local infections were dominated by a single lineage during each wave, with 96.6% (259/268) in the third wave and 100% (73/73) in the fourth wave belonging to B.1.1.63 and B.1.36.27 lineages, respectively. While B.1.1.63 lineage was imported 2 weeks before the beginning of the third wave, B.1.36.27 lineage has circulated in Hong Kong for 2 months prior to the fourth wave. During the fourth wave, 50.7% (37/73) of local infections in November was identical to the viral genome from an imported case in September. Within B.1.1.63 or B.1.36.27 lineage in our cohort, the most common non-synonymous mutations occurred at the helicase (nsp13) gene. INTERPRETATION: Although stringent measures have prevented most imported cases from spreading in Hong Kong, a single lineage with low-level local transmission in October and early November was responsible for the fourth wave. A superspreading event or lower temperature in November may have facilitated the spread of the B.1.36.27 lineage.

6.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(3): e111-e118, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of subclinical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in perpetuating the COVID-19 pandemic is unknown because population seroprevalence data are absent. We aimed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay, and the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong before and after the pandemic, as well as in Hong Kong residents evacuated from Hubei province, China. METHODS: We did a multicohort study in a hospital and university in Hong Kong. We evaluated the sensitivity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay with RT-PCR data from patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 and the specificity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay with archived serum samples collected before 2019. We compared the seropositivity of the general population of Hong Kong before and after the pandemic had begun, and determined the seropositivity of Hong Kong residents evacuated from Hubei province, China, in March, 2020. FINDINGS: Between Feb 26 and March 18, 2020, we assessed RT-PCR samples from 45 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 to establish the sensitivity of our enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay. To establish the specificity of these assays, we retrieved archived serum. The sensitivity was 91·1% (41 of 45 [95% CI 78·8-97·5]) for the microneutralisation assay, 57·8% (26 of 45 [42·2-72·3]) for anti-nucleoprotein IgG, 66·7% (30 of 45 [51·1-80·0]) for anti-spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG, and 73·3% (33 of 45 [58·1-85·4]) for enzyme immunoassay (either positive for anti-nucleoprotein or anti-RBD IgG). The specificity was 100% (152 of 152 [95% CI 97·6-100·0]) for both the enzyme immunoassay and microneutralisation assay. Among the Hong Kong general population, 53 (2·7%) of 1938 were enzyme immunoassay positive, but of those who were positive, all 53 were microneutralisation negative, and no significant increase was seen in the seroprevalence between April 12, 2018, and Feb 13, 2020. Among asymptomatic Hubei returnees, 17 (4%) of 452 were seropositive with the enzyme immunoassay or the microneutralisation assay, with 15 (88%) of 17 seropositive with the microneutralisation assay, and two familial clusters were identified. INTERPRETATION: Our serological data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is a new emerging virus. The seropositivity rate in Hubei returnees indicates that RT-PCR-confirmed patients only represent a small proportion of the total number of cases. The low seroprevalence suggests that most of the Hong Kong and Hubei population remain susceptible to COVID-19. Future waves of the outbreak are inevitable without a vaccine or antiviral prophylaxis. The role of age-related cross reactive non-neutralising antibodies in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 warrants further investigation. FUNDING: Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, Shaw Foundation (Hong Kong), Michael Tong, Marina Lee, and the Government Consultancy Service (see acknowledgments for full list).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760933

ABSTRACT

Currently available COVID-19 antibody tests using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunochromatographic assay have variable sensitivity and specificity. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel microsphere-based antibody assay (MBA) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein (NP) and spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). The seropositive cutoff value was set using a cohort of 294 anonymous serum specimens collected in 2018. The specificity was assessed using serum specimens collected from organ donors or influenza patients before 2020. Seropositive rate was determined among COVID-19 patients. Time-to-seropositivity and signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio were compared between MBA and EIA. MBA had a specificity of 100% (93/93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 96-100%) for anti-NP IgG, 98.9% (92/93; 95% CI 94.2-100%) for anti-RBD IgG. The MBA seropositive rate for convalescent COVID-19 patients was 89.8% (35/39) for anti-NP IgG and 79.5% (31/39) for anti-RBD IgG. The time-to-seropositivity was shorter with MBA than EIA. MBA could better differentiate between COVID-19 patients and negative controls with higher S/CO ratio for COVID-19 patients, lower S/CO ratio with negative controls and fewer specimens in the equivocal range. MBA is robust, simple and is suitable for clinical microbiology laboratory for the accurate determination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for diagnosis, serosurveillance, and vaccine trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Microspheres , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/standards
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714483

ABSTRACT

Sensitive molecular assays are critical for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Here, we designed and evaluated two single-tube nested (STN) real-time RT-PCR assays, targeting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp/Hel and N genes. Both STN assays had a low limit of detection and did not cross react with other human coronaviruses and respiratory viruses. Using 213 initial respiratory specimens from suspected COVID-19 patients, the sensitivity of both the STN COVID-19-RdRp/Hel and the STN COVID-19-N assays was 100% (99/99), while that of the comparator non-nested N assay was 95% (94/99). Among 108 follow-up specimens from confirmed COVID-19 patients who tested negative by the non-nested COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay, 28 (25.9%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by the STN COVID-19-RdRp/Hel or the STN COVID-19-N assay. To evaluate the performance of our novel STN assays in pooled specimens, we created four sample pools, with each pool consisting of one low positive specimen and 49 negative specimens. While the non-nested COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay was positive in only one of four sample pools (25%), both of the STN assays were positive in two of four samples pools (50%). In conclusion, the STN assays are highly sensitive and specific for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Their boosted sensitivity offers advantages in non-traditional COVID-19 testing algorithms such as saliva screening and pooled sample screening during massive screening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
9.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2725-2734, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-530466

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 using molecular assays is critical for patient management and the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is an increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 viruses with mutations at the primer or probe binding sites, and these mutations may affect the sensitivity of currently available real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting the nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E), and open reading frame 1a or 1b genes. Using sequence-independent single-primer amplification and nanopore whole-genome sequencing, we have found that the nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) gene, located at the 5' end of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, was highly expressed in the nasopharyngeal or saliva specimens of 9 COVID-19 patients of different clinical severity. Based on this finding, we have developed a novel nsp1 real-time RT-PCR assay. The primers and probes are highly specific for SARS-CoV-2. Validation with 101 clinical specimens showed that our nsp1 RT-PCR assay has a sensitivity of 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.2%-97.2%), which was similar to those of N and E gene RT-PCR assays. The diagnostic specificity was 100% (95% CI: 92.9%-100%). The addition of nsp1 for multitarget detection of SARS-CoV-2 can avoid false-negative results due to mutations at the primers/probes binding sites of currently available RT-PCR assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nasopharynx/virology , Open Reading Frames , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Lancet ; 395(10238): 1695-1704, 2020 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective antiviral therapy is important for tackling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial in adults with COVID-19 who were admitted to six hospitals in Hong Kong. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to a 14-day combination of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h, ribavirin 400 mg every 12 h, and three doses of 8 million international units of interferon beta-1b on alternate days (combination group) or to 14 days of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (control group). The primary endpoint was the time to providing a nasopharyngeal swab negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RT-PCR, and was done in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04276688. FINDINGS: Between Feb 10 and March 20, 2020, 127 patients were recruited; 86 were randomly assigned to the combination group and 41 were assigned to the control group. The median number of days from symptom onset to start of study treatment was 5 days (IQR 3-7). The combination group had a significantly shorter median time from start of study treatment to negative nasopharyngeal swab (7 days [IQR 5-11]) than the control group (12 days [8-15]; hazard ratio 4·37 [95% CI 1·86-10·24], p=0·0010). Adverse events included self-limited nausea and diarrhoea with no difference between the two groups. One patient in the control group discontinued lopinavir-ritonavir because of biochemical hepatitis. No patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Early triple antiviral therapy was safe and superior to lopinavir-ritonavir alone in alleviating symptoms and shortening the duration of viral shedding and hospital stay in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Future clinical study of a double antiviral therapy with interferon beta-1b as a backbone is warranted. FUNDING: The Shaw-Foundation, Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, and Sanming Project of Medicine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hong Kong , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42099

ABSTRACT

The pandemic novel coronavirus infection, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has affected at least 190 countries or territories, with 465,915 confirmed cases and 21,031 deaths. In a containment-based strategy, rapid, sensitive and specific testing is important in epidemiological control and clinical management. Using 96 SARS-CoV-2 and 104 non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus genomes and our in-house program, GolayMetaMiner, four specific regions longer than 50 nucleotides in the SARS-CoV-2 genome were identified. Primers were designed to target the longest and previously untargeted nsp2 region and optimized as a probe-free real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The new COVID-19-nsp2 assay had a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.8 TCID50/mL and did not amplify other human-pathogenic coronaviruses and respiratory viruses. Assay reproducibility in terms of cycle threshold (Cp) values was satisfactory, with the total imprecision (% CV) values well below 5%. Evaluation of the new assay using 59 clinical specimens from 14 confirmed cases showed 100% concordance with our previously developed COVID-19-RdRp/Hel reference assay. A rapid, sensitive, SARS-CoV-2-specific real-time RT-PCR assay, COVID-19-nsp2, was developed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(5): 565-574, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-14173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe community and nosocomial outbreaks. Comprehensive data for serial respiratory viral load and serum antibody responses from patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not yet available. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs are usually obtained for serial viral load monitoring of respiratory infections but gathering these specimens can cause discomfort for patients and put health-care workers at risk. We aimed to ascertain the serial respiratory viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in posterior oropharyngeal (deep throat) saliva samples from patients with COVID-19, and serum antibody responses. METHODS: We did a cohort study at two hospitals in Hong Kong. We included patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We obtained samples of blood, urine, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and rectal swabs. Serial viral load was ascertained by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 internal nucleoprotein (NP) and surface spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using EIA. Whole-genome sequencing was done to identify possible mutations arising during infection. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22, 2020, and Feb 12, 2020, 30 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 23 were included (median age 62 years [range 37-75]). The median viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva or other respiratory specimens at presentation was 5·2 log10 copies per mL (IQR 4·1-7·0). Salivary viral load was highest during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time (slope -0·15, 95% CI -0·19 to -0·11; R2=0·71). In one patient, viral RNA was detected 25 days after symptom onset. Older age was correlated with higher viral load (Spearman's ρ=0·48, 95% CI 0·074-0·75; p=0·020). For 16 patients with serum samples available 14 days or longer after symptom onset, rates of seropositivity were 94% for anti-NP IgG (n=15), 88% for anti-NP IgM (n=14), 100% for anti-RBD IgG (n=16), and 94% for anti-RBD IgM (n=15). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NP or anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG levels correlated with virus neutralisation titre (R2>0·9). No genome mutations were detected on serial samples. INTERPRETATION: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples are a non-invasive specimen more acceptable to patients and health-care workers. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome, patients with COVID-19 had the highest viral load near presentation, which could account for the fast-spreading nature of this epidemic. This finding emphasises the importance of stringent infection control and early use of potent antiviral agents, alone or in combination, for high-risk individuals. Serological assay can complement RT-qPCR for diagnosis. FUNDING: Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Tong, Marina Lee, Government Consultancy Service, and Sanming Project of Medicine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
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