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1.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(9): 686-694, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464249

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 is associated with a high mortality rate, though outcomes of the different lung compliance phenotypes are unclear. We aimed to measure lung compliance and examine other factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. METHODS: Adult patients with COVID-19 ARDS who required invasive mechanical ventilation at 8 hospitals in Singapore were prospectively enrolled. Factors associated with both mortality and differences between high (<40mL/cm H2O) and low (<40mL/cm H2O) compliance were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation were analysed; 15 (14.7%) did not survive. Non-survivors were older (median 70 years, interquartile range [IQR] 67-75 versus median 61 years, IQR 52-66; P<0.01), and required a longer duration of ventilation (26 days, IQR 12-27 vs 8 days, IQR 5-15; P<0.01) and intensive care unit support (26 days, IQR 11-30 vs 11.5 days, IQR 7-17.3; P=0.01), with a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (15 patients [100%] vs 40 patients [46%]; P<0.01). There were 67 patients who had lung compliance data; 24 (35.8%) were classified as having high compliance and 43 (64.2%) as having low compliance. Mortality was higher in patients with high compliance (33.3% vs 11.6%; P=0.03), and was associated with a drop in compliance at day 7 (-9.3mL/cm H2O (IQR -4.5 to -15.4) vs 0.2mL/cm H2O (4.7 to -5.2) P=0.04). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 ARDS patients with higher compliance on the day of intubation and a longitudinal decrease over time had a higher risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung Compliance , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7477, 2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169408

ABSTRACT

We aim to describe a case series of critically and non-critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore. This was a multicentered prospective study with clinical and laboratory details. Details for fifty uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and ten who required mechanical ventilation were collected. We compared clinical features between the groups, assessed predictors of intubation, and described ventilatory management in ICU patients. Ventilated patients were significantly older, reported more dyspnea, had elevated C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. A multivariable logistic regression model identified respiratory rate (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.47) and neutrophil count (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.34-4.26) on admission as independent predictors of intubation with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.928 (95% CI 0.828-0.979). Median APACHE II score was 19 (IQR 17-22) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio before intubation was 104 (IQR 89-129). Median peak FiO2 was 0.75 (IQR 0.6-1.0), positive end-expiratory pressure 12 (IQR 10-14) and plateau pressure 22 (IQR 18-26) in the first 24 h of ventilation. Median duration of ventilation was 6.5 days (IQR 5.5-13). There were no fatalities. Most COVID-19 patients in Singapore who required mechanical ventilation because of ARDS were extubated with no mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore
4.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(3): 663-674, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886991

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 are known to be at risk of developing both venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, due to an excessive immuno-thrombogenic response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overlapping syndromes of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy with consumptive coagulopathy and microangiopathy can be seen in critically ill patients as well. Blood was collected from 12 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with severe COVID-19 who were on either mechanical ventilation or on high flow oxygen with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of <300 mmHg. Laboratory tests were performed for parameters of haemostasis, clot waveform analysis and anti-phospholipid antibodies. CWA parameters were raised with elevated aPTT median Min1 (clot velocity) 9.3%/s (IQR 7.1-9.9%/s), elevated PT median Min1 10.3%/s (IQR 7.1-11.1%/s), elevated aPTT median Min2 (clot acceleration) 1.5%/s2 (IQR 1.0-1.6%/s2), elevated PT median Min2 5.2%/s2 (3.6-5.7%/s2), elevated aPTT median Max2 (clot deceleration) 1.3%/s2 (IQR 0.8-1.4%/s2) elevated PT median Max2 3.8%/s2 (IQR 2.6-4.2%/s2), increased aPTT median Delta change (decreased light transmission due to increased clot formation) 87.8% (IQR 70.2-91.8%) and PT median Delta change 33.0%. This together with raised median Factor VIII levels of 262.5%, hyperfibrinogenemia (median fibrinogen levels 7.5 g/L), increased median von Willebrand factor antigen levels 320% and elevated median D-dimer levels 1.7 µg/dl support the diagnosis of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy. A lupus anticoagulant was present in 50% of patients. Our laboratory findings further support the view that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a state of hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Thrombophilia/virology , Adult , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/blood
6.
J Knee Surg ; 35(4): 424-433, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729017

ABSTRACT

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) represents a paradigm shift in perioperative care, aimed at achieving early recovery for surgical patients, reducing length of hospital stay, and complications. The purpose of this study was to provide an insight of the impact of the COVID-19 on ERAS protocols for knee arthroplasty patients in a tertiary hospital and potential strategy changes for postpandemic practice. We retrospectively reviewed all cases that underwent surgery utilizing ERAS protocols in the quarter prior to the pandemic (fourth quarter of 2019) and during the first quarter of 2020 when the pandemic started. A review of the literature on ERAS protocols for knee arthroplasty during the COVID-19 pandemic was also performed and discussed. A total of 199 knee arthroplasties were performed in fourth quarter of 2019 as compared with 76 in the first quarter of 2020 during the COVID-19 outbreak. Patients who underwent surgery in the first quarter of 2020 had shorter inpatient stays (3.8 vs. 4.5 days), larger percentage of discharges by postoperative day 5 (86.8 vs. 74.9%), and a larger proportion of patients discharged to their own homes (68 vs. 54%). The overall complication rate (1.3 vs. 3%) and readmission within 30 days (2.6 vs. 2%) was similar between both groups. ERAS protocols appear to reduce hospital lengths of stay for patients undergoing knee arthroplasty without increasing the risk of short-term complications and readmissions. The beneficial effects of ERAS appear to be amplified by and are synchronous with the requirements of operating in the era of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(5): 506-517, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-35108

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads across the world, the intensive care unit (ICU) community must prepare for the challenges associated with this pandemic. Streamlining of workflows for rapid diagnosis and isolation, clinical management, and infection prevention will matter not only to patients with COVID-19, but also to health-care workers and other patients who are at risk from nosocomial transmission. Management of acute respiratory failure and haemodynamics is key. ICU practitioners, hospital administrators, governments, and policy makers must prepare for a substantial increase in critical care bed capacity, with a focus not just on infrastructure and supplies, but also on staff management. Critical care triage to allow the rationing of scarce ICU resources might be needed. Researchers must address unanswered questions, including the role of repurposed and experimental therapies. Collaboration at the local, regional, national, and international level offers the best chance of survival for the critically ill.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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