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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1031852, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323296

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as the more transmissible Delta and Omicron variants, has raised concerns on efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we examined the waning of antibody responses against different variants following primary and booster vaccination. We found that antibody responses against variants were low following primary vaccination. The antibody response against Omicron was almost non-existent. Efficient boosting of antibody response against all variants, including Omicron, was observed following a third dose. The antibody response against the variants tested was significantly higher at one month following booster vaccination, compared with two months following primary vaccination, for all individuals, including the low antibody responders identified at two months following primary vaccination. The antibody response, for all variants tested, was significantly higher at four months post booster than at five months post primary vaccination, and the proportion of low responders remained low (6-11%). However, there was significant waning of antibody response in more than 95% of individuals at four months, compared to one month following booster. We also observed a robust memory B cell response following booster, which remained higher at four months post booster than prior to booster. However, the memory B cell responses were on the decline for 50% of individuals at four months following booster. Similarly, while the T cell response is sustained, at cohort level, at four months post booster, a substantial proportion of individuals (18.8 - 53.8%) exhibited T cell response at four months post booster that has waned to levels below their corresponding levels before booster. The findings show an efficient induction of immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants following booster vaccination. However, the induced immunity by the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose was transient. The findings suggest that elderly individuals may require a fourth dose to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies
3.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1043049, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323295

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has a wide disease spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to severe. While humoral immune responses are critical in preventing infection, the immune mechanisms leading to severe disease, and the identification of biomarkers of disease progression and/or resolution of the infection remains to be determined. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from infections during the initial wave of ancestral wildtype SARS-CoV-2 and from vaccine breakthrough infections during the wave of Delta variant, up to six months post infection. The spike-specific antibody profiles were compared across different severity groups and timepoints. Results: We found an association between spike-specific IgM, IgA and IgG and disease severity in unvaccinated infected individuals. In addition to strong IgG1 and IgG3 response, patients with severe disease develop a robust IgG2 and IgG4 response. A comparison of the ratio of IgG1 and IgG3 to IgG2 and IgG4 showed that disease progression is associated with a smaller ratio in both the initial wave of WT and the vaccine breakthrough Delta infections. Time-course analysis revealed that smaller (IgG1 and IgG3)/(IgG2 and IgG4) ratio is associated with disease progression, while the reverse associates with clinical recovery. Discussion: While each IgG subclass is associated with disease severity, the balance within the four IgG subclasses may affect disease outcome. Acute disease progression or infection resolution is associated with a specific immunological phenotype that is conserved in both the initial wave of WT and the vaccine breakthrough Delta infections.

4.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28774, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323105

ABSTRACT

Long-term complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are concerning, as survivors can develop subclinical multiorgan dysfunction. It is unknown if such complications are due to prolonged inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination may reduce sequela. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study on hospitalized patients over 24 months. Clinical symptoms were collected by self-reporting during follow-up, along with blood samples for quantification of inflammatory markers and immune cell frequencies. All patients were given one dose of mRNA vaccine at 12-16 months. Their immune profiles at 12 and 24 months were compared. Approximately 37% and 39% of our patients reported post-COVID-19 symptoms at 12 and 24 months, respectively. The proportion of symptomatic patients with more than one symptom decreased from 69% at 12 months to 56% at 24 months. Longitudinal cytokine profiling revealed a cluster of individuals with persistently high inflammatory cytokine levels 12 months after infection. Patients with prolonged inflammation showed elevated terminally differentiated memory T cells in their blood; 54% had symptoms at 12 months. The majority of inflammatory markers and dysregulated immune cells in vaccinated patients recovered to a healthy baseline at 24 months, even though symptoms persisted. Post-COVID-19 symptoms can linger for 2 years after the initial infection and are associated with prolonged inflammation. Prolonged inflammation in hospitalized patients resolves after 2 years. We define a set of analytes associated with persistent inflammation and presence of symptoms, which could be useful biomarkers for identifying and monitoring high-risk survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Inflammation , Cytokines
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning antibody levels post-vaccination and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) capable of evading protective immunity has raised the need for booster vaccinations. However, which combination of COVID-19 vaccines offers the strongest immune response against Omicron variant is unknown. METHODS: This randomized, subject-blinded, controlled trial assessed the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of different COVID-19 vaccine booster combinations. 100 BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals were enrolled and randomized 1: 1 to either homologous (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + BNT162b2; 'BBB') or heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + mRNA-1273; 'BBM'). Primary endpoint was the level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and VOCs at Day 28. RESULTS: 51 participants were allocated to BBB and 49 to BBM; 50 and 48 respectively were analyzed for safety and immunogenicity outcomes. At Day 28 post-boost, mean SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titers were lower with BBB (22,382  IU/mL 95% CI, 18,210 to 27,517) vs BBM (29,751  IU/mL 95% CI, 25,281 to 35,011, p = 0.034) as was the median level of neutralizing antibodies: BBB 99.0% (IQR 97.9 to 99.3%) vs BBM 99.3% (IQR 98.8 to 99.5%, p = 0.021). On sub-group analysis, significant differences in mean spike antibody titer and live Omicron neutralization titer was only observed in older adults. Median surrogate neutralizing antibody level against all VOCs was also significantly higher with BBM in older adults, and against Omicron was BBB 72.8% (IQR 54.0 to 84.7%) vs BBM 84.3% (IQR 78.1 to 88.7%, p = 0.0073). Both vaccines were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous mRNA-1273 booster vaccination induced a stronger neutralizing response against the Omicron variant in older individuals compared with homologous BNT123b2.

6.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 3(1): 62, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, is a threat to public health. Evidence suggests increased neutrophil activation and endothelial glycocalyx (EG) damage are independently associated with severe COVID-19. Here, we hypothesised that an increased level of blood neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) is associated with soluble EG breakdown, and inhibiting MPO activity may reduce EG damage. METHODS: Analysing a subset of acute and convalescent COVID-19 plasma, 10 from severe and 15 from non-severe COVID-19 cases, and 9 from pre-COVID-19 controls, we determined MPO levels, MPO activity and soluble EG proteins (syndecan-1 and glypican-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro primary human aortic endothelial cells were cultured with plasma untreated or treated with specific MPO inhibitors (MPO-IN-28, AZD5904) to determine EG shedding. We then investigated whether inhibiting MPO activity decreased EG degradation. RESULTS: In COVID-19 plasma, MPO levels, MPO activity and levels of soluble EG proteins are significantly raised compared to controls, and concentrations increase in proportion to disease severity. Despite clinical recovery, protein concentrations remain significantly elevated. Interestingly, there is a trend of increasing MPO activity in convalescent plasma in both severe and non-severe groups. MPO levels and MPO activity correlate significantly with soluble EG levels and inhibiting MPO activity leads to reduced syndecan-1 shedding, in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophil MPO may increase EG shedding in COVID-19, and inhibiting MPO activity may protect against EG degradation. Further research is needed to evaluate the utility of MPO inhibitors as potential therapeutics against severe COVID-19.


COVID-19 can result in severe disease and is potentially fatal. Neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in circulation, secrete antimicrobials that have been linked to severe COVID-19 development. The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is a carbohydrate rich layer that coats the inner surface of the vasculature and damage to the EG is observed in severe COVID-19. Here, we investigate whether myeloperoxidase, an antimicrobial released by neutrophils, is associated with EG damage in COVID-19 patients. We also determine whether reducing myeloperoxidase activity prevents damage to the EG. Our results suggest myeloperoxidase is associated with EG damage and severe COVID-19. We also demonstrated that a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity may protect against EG degradation. Further studies to evaluate the utility of MPO inhibitors as a therapy against severe COVID-19 are warranted.

8.
J Med Virol ; : e28258, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244711

ABSTRACT

Waning antibody levels against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the emergence of variants of concern highlight the need for booster vaccinations. This is particularly important for the elderly population, who are at a higher risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. While studies have shown increased antibody responses following booster vaccination, understanding the changes in T and B cell compartments induced by a third vaccine dose remains limited. We analyzed the humoral and cellular responses in subjects who received either a homologous messenger RNA(mRNA) booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + BNT162b2; ''BBB") or a heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + mRNA-1273; ''BBM") at Day 0 (prebooster), Day 7, and Day 28 (postbooster). Compared with BBB, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) who received the BBM vaccination regimen display higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Wuhan and Delta strains along with a higher boost in immunoglobulin G memory B cells, particularly against the Omicron variant. Circulating T helper type 1(Th1), Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper responses were also increased in elderly individuals given the BBM regimen. While mRNA vaccines increase antibody, T cell, and B cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 1 month after receiving the third dose booster, the efficacy of the booster vaccine strategies may vary depending on age group and regimen combination.

9.
STAR protocols ; 2023.
Article in English | Europe PMC | ID: covidwho-2244710

ABSTRACT

B-cell ELISpot is an extremely sensitive assay based on the secretion of antibodies by B cells which requires the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). Here, we describe the procedure to analyse both plasmablast (PB) and memory B cell (MBC) responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain in the context of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We detail steps for MBC stimulation, MBC and PB plating, detection and counting of total IgG and RBD-specific spots. Graphical Publisher's note: Undertaking any experimental protocol requires adherence to local institutional guidelines for laboratory safety and ethics.

10.
STAR Protoc ; 4(1): 102130, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235031

ABSTRACT

B-cell ELISpot is an extremely sensitive assay based on the secretion of antibodies by B cells that requires the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting cells. Here, we describe the procedure to analyze both plasmablast (PB) and memory B cell (MBC) responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the context of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We detail steps for MBC stimulation, MBC and PB plating, detection, and counting of total IgG and RBD-specific spots. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Tay et al. (2022).1.

11.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1521(1): 46-66, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228475

ABSTRACT

Positive-strand RNA viruses have been the cause of several recent outbreaks and epidemics, including the Zika virus epidemic in 2015, the SARS outbreak in 2003, and the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. On June 18-22, 2022, researchers focusing on positive-strand RNA viruses met for the Keystone Symposium "Positive-Strand RNA Viruses" to share the latest research in molecular and cell biology, virology, immunology, vaccinology, and antiviral drug development. This report presents concise summaries of the scientific discussions at the symposium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy
12.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147289

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 has a wide disease spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to severe. While humoral immune responses are critical in preventing infection, the immune mechanisms leading to severe disease, and the identification of biomarkers of disease progression and/or resolution of the infection remains to be determined. Methods Plasma samples were obtained from infections during the initial wave of ancestral wildtype SARS-CoV-2 and from vaccine breakthrough infections during the wave of Delta variant, up to six months post infection. The spike-specific antibody profiles were compared across different severity groups and timepoints. Results We found an association between spike-specific IgM, IgA and IgG and disease severity in unvaccinated infected individuals. In addition to strong IgG1 and IgG3 response, patients with severe disease develop a robust IgG2 and IgG4 response. A comparison of the ratio of IgG1 and IgG3 to IgG2 and IgG4 showed that disease progression is associated with a smaller ratio in both the initial wave of WT and the vaccine breakthrough Delta infections. Time-course analysis revealed that smaller (IgG1 and IgG3)/(IgG2 and IgG4) ratio is associated with disease progression, while the reverse associates with clinical recovery. Discussion While each IgG subclass is associated with disease severity, the balance within the four IgG subclasses may affect disease outcome. Acute disease progression or infection resolution is associated with a specific immunological phenotype that is conserved in both the initial wave of WT and the vaccine breakthrough Delta infections.

13.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125048

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as the more transmissible Delta and Omicron variants, has raised concerns on efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we examined the waning of antibody responses against different variants following primary and booster vaccination. We found that antibody responses against variants were low following primary vaccination. The antibody response against Omicron was almost non-existent. Efficient boosting of antibody response against all variants, including Omicron, was observed following a third dose. The antibody response against the variants tested was significantly higher at one month following booster vaccination, compared with two months following primary vaccination, for all individuals, including the low antibody responders identified at two months following primary vaccination. The antibody response, for all variants tested, was significantly higher at four months post booster than at five months post primary vaccination, and the proportion of low responders remained low (6-11%). However, there was significant waning of antibody response in more than 95% of individuals at four months, compared to one month following booster. We also observed a robust memory B cell response following booster, which remained higher at four months post booster than prior to booster. However, the memory B cell responses were on the decline for 50% of individuals at four months following booster. Similarly, while the T cell response is sustained, at cohort level, at four months post booster, a substantial proportion of individuals (18.8 – 53.8%) exhibited T cell response at four months post booster that has waned to levels below their corresponding levels before booster. The findings show an efficient induction of immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants following booster vaccination. However, the induced immunity by the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose was transient. The findings suggest that elderly individuals may require a fourth dose to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045620

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can be severe in pregnant women, and have adverse consequences for the subsequent infant. We profiled the post-infectious immune responses in maternal and child blood as well as breast milk in terms of antibody and cytokine expression and performed histopathological studies on placentae obtained from mothers convalescent from antenatal COVID-19. Seventeen mother-child dyads (8 cases of antenatal COVID-19 and 9 healthy unrelated controls;34 individuals in total) were recruited to the Gestational Immunity For Transfer (GIFT) study. Maternal and infant blood, and breast milk samples were collected over the first year of life. All samples were analyzed for IgG and IgA against whole SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and previously reported immunodominant epitopes, as well as cytokine levels. The placentae were examined microscopically. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under the identifier NCT04802278. We found high levels of virus-specific IgG in convalescent mothers and similarly elevated titers in newborn children. Thus, antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection led to high plasma titers of virus-specific antibodies in infants postnatally. However, this waned within 3–6 months of life. Virus neutralization by plasma was not uniformly achieved, and the presence of antibodies targeting known immunodominant epitopes did not assure neutralization. Virus-specific IgA levels were variable among convalescent individuals’ sera and breast milk. Antibody transfer ratios and the decay of transplacentally transferred virus-specific antibodies in neonatal circulation resembled that for other pathogens. Convalescent mothers showed signs of chronic inflammation marked by persistently elevated IL17RA levels in their blood. Four placentae presented signs of acute inflammation, particularly in the subchorionic region, marked by neutrophil infiltration even though > 50 days had elapsed between virus clearance and delivery. Administration of a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to mothers convalescent from antenatal COVID-19 increased virus-specific IgG and IgA titers in breast milk, highlighting the importance of receiving the vaccine even after natural infection with the added benefit of enhanced passive immunity.

15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4615, 2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036813

ABSTRACT

Understanding the impact of age on vaccinations is essential for the design and delivery of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we present findings from a comprehensive analysis of multiple compartments of the memory immune response in 312 individuals vaccinated with the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Two vaccine doses induce high antibody and T cell responses in most individuals. However, antibody recognition of the Spike protein of the Delta and Omicron variants is less efficient than that of the ancestral Wuhan strain. Age-stratified analyses identify a group of low antibody responders where individuals ≥60 years are overrepresented. Waning of the antibody and cellular responses is observed in 30% of the vaccinees after 6 months. However, age does not influence the waning of these responses. Taken together, while individuals ≥60 years old take longer to acquire vaccine-induced immunity, they develop more sustained acquired immunity at 6 months post-vaccination. A third dose strongly boosts the low antibody responses in the older individuals against the ancestral Wuhan strain, Delta and Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
Trials ; 23(1): 498, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 2021, COVID-19 vaccination programs worldwide focused on raising population immunity through the primary COVID-19 vaccine series. In Singapore, two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) and the inactivated vaccine CoronaVac are currently authorized under the National Vaccination Programme for use as the primary vaccination series. More than 90% of the Singapore population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine as of December 2021. With the demonstration that vaccine effectiveness wanes in the months after vaccination, and the emergence of Omicron which evades host immunity from prior infection and/or vaccination, attention in many countries has shifted to how best to maintain immunity through booster vaccinations. METHODS: The objectives of this phase 3, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled clinical trial are to assess the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boost COVID-19 vaccine regimens (intervention groups 1-4) compared with a homologous boost regimen (control arm) in up to 600 adult volunteers. As non-mRNA vaccine candidates may enter the study at different time points depending on vaccine availability and local regulatory approval, participants will be randomized at equal probability to the available intervention arms at the time of randomization. Eligible participants will have received two doses of a homologous mRNA vaccine series with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 at least 6 months prior to enrolment. Participants will be excluded if they have a history of confirmed SARS or SARS-CoV-2 infection, are immunocompromised, or are pregnant. Participants will be monitored for adverse events and serious adverse events by physical examinations, laboratory tests and self-reporting. Blood samples will be collected at serial time points [pre-vaccination/screening (day - 14 to day 0), day 7, day 28, day 180, day 360 post-vaccination] for assessment of antibody and cellular immune parameters. Primary endpoint is the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulins at day 28 post-booster and will be measured against wildtype SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern. Comprehensive immune profiling of the humoral and cellular immune response to vaccination will be performed. DISCUSSION: This study will provide necessary data to understand the quantity, quality, and persistence of the immune response to a homologous and heterologous third booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines. This is an important step in developing COVID-19 vaccination programs beyond the primary series. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05142319 . Registered on 2 Dec 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Bastard, Paul, Vazquez, Sara, Liu, Jamin, Laurie, Matthew T.; Wang, Chung Yu, Gervais, Adrian, Le Voyer, Tom, Bizien, Lucy, Zamecnik, Colin, Philippot, Quentin, Rosain, Jérémie, Catherinot, Emilie, Willmore, Andrew, Mitchell, Anthea M.; Bair, Rebecca, Garçon, Pierre, Kenney, Heather, Fekkar, Arnaud, Salagianni, Maria, Poulakou, Garyphallia, Siouti, Eleni, Sahanic, Sabina, Tancevski, Ivan, Weiss, Günter, Nagl, Laurenz, Manry, Jérémy, Duvlis, Sotirija, Arroyo-Sánchez, Daniel, Paz Artal, Estela, Rubio, Luis, Perani, Cristiano, Bezzi, Michela, Sottini, Alessandra, Quaresima, Virginia, Roussel, Lucie, Vinh, Donald C.; Reyes, Luis Felipe, Garzaro, Margaux, Hatipoglu, Nevin, Boutboul, David, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte, Yacine, Borghesi, Alessandro, Aliberti, Anna, Cassaniti, Irene, Venet, Fabienne, Monneret, Guillaume, Halwani, Rabih, Sharif-Askari, Narjes Saheb, Danielson, Jeffrey, Burrel, Sonia, Morbieu, Caroline, Stepanovskyy, Yurii, Bondarenko, Anastasia, Volokha, Alla, Boyarchuk, Oksana, Gagro, Alenka, Neuville, Mathilde, Neven, Bénédicte, Keles, Sevgi, Hernu, Romain, Bal, Antonin, Novelli, Antonio, Novelli, Giuseppe, Saker, Kahina, Ailioaie, Oana, Antolí, Arnau, Jeziorski, Eric, Rocamora-Blanch, Gemma, Teixeira, Carla, Delaunay, Clarisse, Lhuillier, Marine, Le Turnier, Paul, Zhang, Yu, Mahevas, Matthieu, Pan-Hammarström, Qiang, Abolhassani, Hassan, Bompoil, Thierry, Dorgham, Karim, consortium, Covid Hge, French, Covid study group, consortium, Comet, Gorochov, Guy, Laouenan, Cédric, Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos, Ng, Lisa F. P.; Renia, Laurent, Pujol, Aurora, Belot, Alexandre, Raffi, François, Allende, Luis M.; Martinez-Picado, Javier, Ozcelik, Tayfun, Keles, Sevgi, Imberti, Luisa, Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Troya, Jesus, Solanich, Xavier, Zhang, Shen-Ying, Puel, Anne, Wilson, Michael R.; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie, Abel, Laurent, Jouanguy, Emmanuelle, Ye, Chun Jimmie, Cobat, Aurélie, Thompson, Leslie M.; Andreakos, Evangelos, Zhang, Qian, Anderson, Mark S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent, DeRisi, Joseph L..
Science immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918542

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening ‘breakthrough’ cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals;however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals (age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto-Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω, while two neutralized IFN-ω only. No patient neutralized IFN-β. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population. Type I IFN auto-Abs are found in 20% of hypoxemic, mRNA vaccinated COVID-19 patients despite SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Description

18.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901005

ABSTRACT

Recessive or dominant inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated adults. The risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated children, which is much lower than in unvaccinated adults, remains unexplained. In an international cohort of 112 children (<16 yr old) hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, we report 12 children (10.7%) aged 1.5-13 yr with critical (7 children), severe (3), and moderate (2) pneumonia and 4 of the 15 known clinically recessive and biochemically complete inborn errors of type I IFN immunity: X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency (7 children) and autosomal recessive IFNAR1 (1), STAT2 (1), or TYK2 (3) deficiencies. Fibroblasts deficient for IFNAR1, STAT2, or TYK2 are highly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. These 15 deficiencies were not found in 1,224 children and adults with benign SARS-CoV-2 infection without pneumonia (P = 1.2 × 10-11) and with overlapping age, sex, consanguinity, and ethnicity characteristics. Recessive complete deficiencies of type I IFN immunity may underlie ∼10% of hospitalizations for COVID-19 pneumonia in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Inheritance Patterns , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2460-2470, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748622

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) serology has an evolving role in the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, its use in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms remains unclear. Hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness admitted to an isolation ward were recruited. All patients had negative nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. Serological studies using four separate assays (cPass: surrogate neutralizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]; Elecsys: N-antigen based chemiluminescent assay; SFB: S protein flow-based; epitope peptide-based ELISA) were performed on stored plasma collected from patients during the initial hospital stay, and a convalescent visit 4-12 weeks later. Of the 51 patients studied (aged 54, interquartile range 21-84; 62.7% male), no patients tested positive on the Elecsys or cPass assays. Out of 51 patients, 5 had antibodies detected on B-cell Epitope Assay and 3/51 had antibodies detected on SFB assay. These 8 patients with positive serological test to COVID-19 were more likely to have a high-risk occupation (p = 0.039), bacterial infection (p = 0.028), and neutrophilia (p = 0.013) during their initial hospital admission. Discrepant COVID-19 serological findings were observed among those with recent hospital admissions and bacterial infections. The positive serological findings within our cohort raise important questions about the interpretation of sero-epidemiology during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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