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2.
2021 International Symposium on Educational Technology, ISET 2021 ; : 89-95, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470344

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of COVID-19, schools at all levels were closed and face-to-face classes were cancelled. The stagnation was considered as the most impactful in human history. Surprisingly, the incident also revealed that the education sector was most vulnerable and yet resilient. Schools that have been implementing e-learning/online learning/blended or flexible learning prior to the pandemic mostly survived and were able to adapt to the new normal while those heavily relied on face-to-face classes delivery suffered the most. Readiness and responsiveness were the two key factors for educational institutions to survive. Readiness here included not merely the preparation of e-learning and teaching resources but also the stakeholders' learning and teaching practices, habits and willingness. Schools' timely responses and decision making on the changes of policies, curricula, timetabling as well as choosing the appropriate learning and teaching platforms were equally important. This study looked specifically into one of Hong Kong largest vocational and professional education and training (VPET) institute's learning and teaching policy and students' online learning experience in response to the outbreak of the pandemic. The institute also experienced the closed down of campuses and classes suspension due to the social unrest in Hong Kong in 2019. This paper first reviewed the contingency policy followed by a study on the implementation of online learning and teaching activities during the pandemic. A questionnaire survey was then conducted to 1,381 full-time and 193 part-time students on their online learning experience for the enhancement of the online learning and teaching practices and future planning. Results of the study showed that online learning experience varied amongst students from different learning programmes. This study also found that part-time students had a more satisfying online learning experience and were more adaptable to online learning than full-time students. Findings also revealed that clarity and sufficient guideline in using online learning platform and learning materials, enhancement of online assessment as well as guidance, support and feedback from teachers were the salient points to be addressed. © 2021 IEEE.

4.
Proceedings of 2020 Ieee International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering ; : 780-785, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1313967

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has placed a huge strain on higher education institutions and educators around the world, which has included the closure of campuses, removal of face-to-face instruction and a shift to remote teaching and learning. However, this situation has also created unique opportunities and conditions that can foster innovation in teaching and learning practices and content delivery. One such innovation gaining traction is Microlearning, which offers learning opportunities through small bursts of training materials that learners can comprehend in a short time, according to their preferred schedule and location. This paper explores the potential of Microlearning within design education and how it can be implemented into the Product Design & Manufacture programme at University of Nottingham Ningbo China to support teaching instruction and enhance the student learning experience post-COVID-19.

5.
Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Teach., Assess., Learn. Eng., TALE ; : 780-785, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1155847
6.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 536-553, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pandemics such as COVID-19, shortages of personal protective equipment are common. One solution may be to decontaminate equipment such as facemasks for reuse. AIM: To collect and synthesize existing information on decontamination of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) using microwave and heat-based treatments, with special attention to impacts on mask function (aerosol penetration, airflow resistance), fit, and physical traits. METHODS: A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020177036) of literature available from Medline, Embase, Global Health, and other sources was conducted. Records were screened independently by two reviewers, and data was extracted from studies that reported on effects of microwave- or heat-based decontamination on N95 FFR performance, fit, physical traits, and/or reductions in microbial load. FINDINGS: Thirteen studies were included that used dry/moist microwave irradiation, heat, or autoclaving. All treatment types reduced pathogen load by a log10 reduction factor of at least three when applied for sufficient duration (>30 s microwave, >60 min dry heat), with most studies assessing viral pathogens. Mask function (aerosol penetration <5% and airflow resistance <25 mmH2O) was preserved after all treatments except autoclaving. Fit was maintained for most N95 models, though all treatment types caused observable physical damage to at least one model. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave irradiation and heat may be safe and effective viral decontamination options for N95 FFR reuse during critical shortages. The evidence does not support autoclaving or high-heat (>90°C) approaches. Physical degradation may be an issue for certain mask models, and more real-world evidence on fit is needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hot Temperature , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Ultraviolet Rays , Humans
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 163-175, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716812

ABSTRACT

Inadequate supply of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers during a pandemic such as the novel coronavirus outbreak (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for N95 FFR decontamination. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020176156) was conducted on UVGI in N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and extracted predefined variables. Original research reporting on function, decontamination, or mask fit following UVGI were included. Thirteen studies were identified, comprising 54 UVGI intervention arms and 58 N95 models. FFRs consistently maintained certification standards following UVGI. Aerosol penetration averaged 1.19% (0.70-2.48%) and 1.14% (0.57-2.63%) for control and UVGI arms, respectively. Airflow resistance for the control arms averaged 9.79 mm H2O (7.97-11.70 mm H2O) vs 9.85 mm H2O (8.33-11.44 mm H2O) for UVGI arms. UVGI protocols employing a cumulative dose >20,000 J/m2 resulted in a 2-log reduction in viral load. A >3-log reduction was observed in seven UVGI arms using >40,000 J/m2. Impact of UVGI on fit was evaluated in two studies (16,200; 32,400 J/m2) and no evidence of compromise was found. Our findings suggest that further work in this area (or translation to a clinical setting) should use a cumulative UV-C dose of 40,000 J/m2 or greater, and confirm appropriate mask fit following decontamination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Masks/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety/standards
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 504-521, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decontaminating and reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers is a potential solution to address inadequate FFR supply during a global pandemic. AIM: The objective of this review was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness and safety of using chemical disinfectants to decontaminate N95 FFRs. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on disinfectants to decontaminate N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility and extracted predefined data fields. Original research reporting on N95 FFR function, decontamination, safety, or FFR fit following decontamination with a disinfectant was included. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION: A single cycle of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) successfully removes viral pathogens without affecting airflow resistance or fit, and maintains an initial filter penetration of <5%, with little change in FFR appearance. Residual hydrogen peroxide levels following decontamination were within safe limits. More than one decontamination cycle of vaporized H2O2 may be possible but further information is required on how multiple cycles would affect FFR fit in a real-world setting before the upper limit can be established. Although immersion in liquid H2O2 does not appear to adversely affect FFR function, there is no available data on its ability to remove infectious pathogens from FFRs or its impact on FFR fit. Sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene oxide are not recommended due to safety concerns or negative effects on FFR function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/standards , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Equipment Reuse/standards , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
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