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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7): 2135, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860452
2.
Journal of affective disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837840

ABSTRACT

Background The current study examined how psychological resilience acted as a buffer against mental health deterioration during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey in four countries (Japan, Malaysia, China, and the U.S.) to examine how psychological resilience functions toward the maintenance of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We collected data from 1583 citizens from four countries via an online survey between October 14 and November 2, 2020. We gathered demographic data and measured mental distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) and fear of COVID-19. Data on sense of control, ego-resilience, grit, self-compassion, and resilience indicators were also collected. Results Sense of control was negatively associated with mental distress in all four countries. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental distress in the samples from Japan, China, and the U.S. We also found an interaction effect for sense of control: the lower the sense of control, the stronger the deterioration of mental distress when the fear of COVID-19 was high. Limitations This study's cross-sectional design precludes causal inferences. Further, lack of data from people who were actually infected with the virus limits comparisons of people who were and were not infected. Finally, as this study only compared data from four countries, comparisons with more countries are needed. Conclusions A sense of control and self-compassion may help buffer against mental health deterioration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sense of control was consistently associated with mental health across cultures.

3.
Gut ; 71(7): 1426-1439, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816781

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised considerable concerns that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly those treated with immunosuppressive therapies, may have an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition, develop worse outcomes following COVID-19, and have suboptimal vaccine response compared with the general population. In this review, we summarise data on the risk of COVID-19 and associated outcomes, and latest guidance on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with IBD. Emerging evidence suggests that commonly used medications for IBD, such as corticosteroids but not biologicals, were associated with adverse outcomes to COVID-19. There has been no increased risk of de novo, or delayed, IBD diagnoses, however, an overall decrease in endoscopy procedures has led to a rise in the number of missed endoscopic-detected cancers during the pandemic. The impact of IBD medication on vaccine response has been a research priority recently. Data suggest that patients with IBD treated with antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) medications had attenuated humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and more rapid antibody decay, compared with non-anti-TNF-treated patients. Reassuringly, rates of breakthrough infections and hospitalisations in all patients who received vaccines, irrespective of IBD treatment, remained low. International guidelines recommend that all patients with IBD treated with immunosuppressive therapies should receive, at any point during their treatment cycle, three primary doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with a further booster dose as soon as possible. Future research should focus on our understanding of the rate of antibody decay in biological-treated patients, which patients require additional doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, the long-term risks of COVID-19 on IBD disease course and activity, and the potential risk of long COVID-19 in patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chronic Disease , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Health Promot Int ; 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795265

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between age-friendliness of a city, loneliness and depression moderated by internet use among older people during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The survey was from 'The 2020 Survey of Needs Assessment for a Safe Community and Age-Friendly City' in Xinyi District, Taipei, which was conducted by face-to-face interviews with community-based older adults who were aged 65 and above from one district of Taipei City from May to June 2020 (n = 335). Partial least square structural equation modeling and the SPSS PROCESS macro were used for data analysis. Two domains of an age-friendly city (housing and community support and health services) were found to be associated with reduced loneliness, while one (respect and social inclusion) was associated with decreased depression. The age-friendliness of cities mitigates depression through moderator (internet use) and mediation (loneliness) mechanisms. Although some age-friendly domains of the city reduced loneliness and depression directly, the age-friendliness-loneliness-depression mechanism held true only for older adults who used the internet and not for nonusers. Maintaining the age-friendliness of an environment is beneficial to mental health, and internet use is a necessary condition to gain optimum benefits from age-friendly initiatives. Policy suggestions are discussed.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768931
6.
COVID-19 and psychology in Malaysia: Psychosocial effects, coping, and resilience ; : 39-53, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1733110

ABSTRACT

This article explores that Malaysia's distinctive cultural system, socioeconomic environment and implementation of physical distancing measures, it is essential to know how Malaysians were affected given the prolonged MCO. The following sections report a study done during the COVID-19 pandemic, examining various aspects of mental health, including psychological well-being, internalising symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) and levels of loneliness and social support. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325537

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the enveloped RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from faecal samples and active viral replication was reported in human intestinal cells. The human gut also harbors an enormous amount of resident viruses (collectively known as the virome) that play a role in regulating host immunity and disease pathophysiology. Understanding gut virome perturbation that underlies SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity is an unmet need. Methods: : We enrolled 98 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severity (3 asymptomatic, 53 mild, 34 moderate, 5 severe, 3 critical) and 78 non-COVID-19 controls matched for gender and co-morbidities. All subjects had faecal specimens sampled at inclusion. Blood specimens were collected for COVID-19 patients at admission to test for inflammatory markers and white cell counts. Among COVID-19 cases, 37 (38%) patients had serial faecal samples collected 2 to 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until after discharge. Using shotgun metagenomics sequencing, we sequenced and profiled the faecal RNA and DNA virome. We investigated alterations and longitudinal dynamics of the gut virome in association with disease severity and blood parameters. Results: : Patients with COVID-19 showed underrepresentation of Pepper mild mottle virus (RNA virus) and multiple bacteriophage lineages (DNA viruses) and enrichment of environment-derived eukaryotic DNA viruses in faecal samples, compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Such gut virome alterations persisted up to 30 days after disease resolution. Faecal virome in SARS-CoV-2 infection harboured more stress-, inflammation- and virulence-associated gene encoding capacities including those pertaining to bacteriophage integration, DNA repair, and metabolism and virulence associated with their bacterial host. Baseline fecal abundance of 10 virus species (1 RNA virus, Pepper chlorotic spot virus, and 9 DNA virus species) inversely correlated with disease COVID-19 severity. These viruses inversely correlated with blood levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, white cells and neutrophils. Among the 10 COVID-19 severity-associated DNA virus species, 4 showed inverse correlation with age;5 showed persistent lower abundance both during disease course and after disease resolution relative to non-COVID-19 subjects. Conclusions: Both enteric RNA and DNA virome in COVID-19 patients were different from non-COVID-19 subjects, which persisted after disease resolution of COVID-19. Gut virome may calibrate host immunity and regulate severity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observation that gut viruses inversely correlated with both severity of COVID-19 and host age may partly explain that older subjects are prone to severe and worse COVID-19 outcomes. Altogether our data highlight the importance of human gut virome in severity and potentially therapeutics of COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322597

ABSTRACT

Resilience functions to promote psychological growth and buffer against the effects of negative events. Individual traits that promote optimal mental health beyond resilience, however, remain poorly understood. The current study addresses this gap through a positive psychology perspective. We examine how promotive traits – courage, optimism, hope, and protective traits – nostalgia, wisdom, and spirituality promote well-being and buffer against negative emotional states. We hypothesized that promotive traits will be positively related to well-being while protective traits will be negatively related to negative emotional states. Six-hundred and twenty-six (626) Malaysians responded to an online survey at the end of the country’s second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (June-September 2020). We conducted a series of regression analyses, controlling for resilience, socio-economic status, age, and perceptions towards government crisis management efforts. Results indicate that courage, optimism and hope positively predicted well-being. The strongest promotive trait contributing to well-being is hope. Results also showed that the only significant protective trait against negative emotional states is spirituality. Interestingly, nostalgia and wisdom positively predicted negative emotional states. Findings indicate that beyond resilience, courage, optimism, hope and spirituality are the strongest predictors of well-being and protect against negative emotional states amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings are of theoretical relevance for resilience and positive psychology research, and practically beneficial in informing mental health interventions.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322186

ABSTRACT

Background: Research on psychological resilience is essential for buffering the deterioration of mental health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey in four countries (Japan, Malaysia, China, and the U.S.), to examine psychological resilience that led to the maintenance of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: We conducted a contemporaneous international survey on Japanese, Malaysian, Chinese, and U.S. citizens. A total of 1,583 people responded to the survey between October 14 and November 2, 2020. We measured a wide range of demographic and data on mental illness, as well as data on the fear of COVID-19. Data on sense of control, ego-resilience, grit, self-compassion, and indicators of resilience were also collected.Outcomes: Sense of control was negatively associated with mental illness in all four countries. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental illness (depression, anxiety, and stress) in samples from Japan, China, and the U.S. We also found an interaction effect for sense of control: the lower the sense of control , the stronger the deterioration of mental illness when the fear of COVID-19 was high. High ego-resilience is a strong predictor of mental illness when fear of COVID-19 was high in Japan and China.Interpretation: A sense of control and self-compassion are useful in preventing mental health deterioration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, a sense of control was found to be effective in maintaining mental health across cultures, and may even prevent the deterioration of mental health.Funding: This study was partly supported by the Research Support Program to Apply the Wisdom of the University to tackle COVID-19 Related Emergency Problems (University of Tsukuba) and the Liaoning Social Science Planning Fund Project (Dalian Maritime University).Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The first part of the web survey explained the research ethics. We specified that the survey was approved by the research ethics committee of the University of Tsukuba, that participants did not have to answer any question that they did not wish to, that they were considered to have consented to the research by answering the questions, and that the data would be anonymized and published in a form that would not identify individuals. The items of the scales and raw data measured in the RE-COVER Project have already been made openly available (https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/P56GA).

10.
Gut ; 71(6): 1106-1116, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating host immune response. We conducted a prospective, observational study to examine gut microbiota composition in association with immune responses and adverse events in adults who have received the inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac; Sinovac) or the mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2; BioNTech; Comirnaty). DESIGN: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing in stool samples of 138 COVID-19 vaccinees (37 CoronaVac and 101 BNT162b2 vaccinees) collected at baseline and 1 month after second dose of vaccination. Immune markers were measured by SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralisation test and spike receptor-binding domain IgG ELISA. RESULTS: We found a significantly lower immune response in recipients of CoronaVac than BNT162b2 vaccines (p<0.05). Bifidobacterium adolescentis was persistently higher in subjects with high neutralising antibodies to CoronaVac vaccine (p=0.023) and their baseline gut microbiome was enriched in pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) scores >2 and p<0.05). Neutralising antibodies in BNT162b2 vaccinees showed a positive correlation with the total abundance of bacteria with flagella and fimbriae including Roseburia faecis (p=0.028). The abundance of Prevotella copri and two Megamonas species were enriched in individuals with fewer adverse events following either of the vaccines indicating that these bacteria may play an anti-inflammatory role in host immune response (LDA scores>3 and p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study has identified specific gut microbiota markers in association with improved immune response and reduced adverse events following COVID-19 vaccines. Microbiota-targeted interventions have the potential to complement effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 37(5): 823-831, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gut dysbiosis is associated with immune dysfunction and severity of COVID-19. Whether targeting dysbiosis will improve outcomes of COVID-19 is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effects of a novel gut microbiota-derived synbiotic formula (SIM01) as an adjuvant therapy on immunological responses and changes in gut microbiota of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was an open-label, proof-of-concept study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to an infectious disease referral center in Hong Kong were given a novel formula of Bifidobacteria strains, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharide, and resistant dextrin (SIM01). The latter was derived from metagenomic databases of COVID-19 patients and healthy population. COVID-19 patients who were admitted under another independent infectious disease team during the same period without receiving SIM01 acted as controls. All patients received standard treatments for COVID-19 according to the hospital protocol. We assessed antibody response, plasma proinflammatory markers, nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load, and fecal microbiota profile from admission up to week 5. RESULTS: Twenty-five consecutive COVID-19 patients received SIM01 for 28 days; 30 patients who did not receive the formula acted as controls. Significantly more patients receiving SIM01 than controls developed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody (88% vs 63.3%; P = 0.037) by Day 16. One (4%) and 8 patients (26.7%) in the SIM01 and control group, respectively, failed to develop positive IgG antibody upon discharge. At week 5, plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and IL-1RA reduced significantly in the SIM01 but not in the control group. There was a significant negative correlation of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load and SIM01 intervention. Metagenomic analysis showed that bacterial species in SIM01 formula were found in greater abundance leading to enrichment of commensal bacteria and suppression of opportunistic pathogens in COVID-19 patients by week 4 and week 5. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study suggested that the use of a novel gut microbiota-derived synbiotic formula, SIM01, hastened antibody formation against SARS-CoV-2, reduced nasopharyngeal viral load, reduced pro-inflammatory immune markers, and restored gut dysbiosis in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Synbiotics , Bacteria , COVID-19/therapy , Dysbiosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have emerged in discrete waves. We explored temporal trends in the reporting of COVID-19 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: The Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is an international registry of IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The average percent changes (APCs) were calculated in weekly reported cases of COVID-19 during the periods of March 22 to September 12, September 13 to December 12, 2020, and December 13 to July 31, 2021. RESULTS: Across 73 countries, 6404 cases of COVID-19 were reported in IBD patients. COVID-19 reporting decreased globally by 4.2% per week (95% CI, -5.3% to -3.0%) from March 22 to September 12, 2020, then climbed by 10.2% per week (95% CI, 8.1%-12.3%) from September 13 to December 12, 2020, and then declined by 6.3% per week (95% CI, -7.8% to -4.7%). In the fall of 2020, weekly reporting climbed in North America (APC, 11.3%; 95% CI, 8.8-13.8) and Europe (APC, 17.7%; 95% CI, 12.1%-23.5%), whereas reporting was stable in Asia (APC, -8.1%; 95% CI, -15.6-0.1). From December 13, 2020, to July 31, 2021, reporting of COVID-19 in those with IBD declined in North America (APC, -8.5%; 95% CI, -10.2 to -6.7) and Europe (APC, -5.4%; 95% CI, -7.2 to -3.6) and was stable in Latin America (APC, -1.5%; 95% CI, -3.5% to 0.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal trends in reporting of COVID-19 in those with IBD are consistent with the epidemiological patterns COVID-19 globally.

13.
Cell Death Differ ; 29(6): 1240-1254, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612182

ABSTRACT

A recent mutation analysis suggested that Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a key determinant of the viral pathogenicity. Here, by transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that the inflammasome-related NOD-like receptor signaling was activated in SARS-CoV-2-infected lung epithelial cells and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' lung tissues. The induction of inflammasomes/pyroptosis in patients with severe COVID-19 was confirmed by serological markers. Overexpression of NSP6 triggered NLRP3/ASC-dependent caspase-1 activation, interleukin-1ß/18 maturation, and pyroptosis of lung epithelial cells. Upstream, NSP6 impaired lysosome acidification to inhibit autophagic flux, whose restoration by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, metformin or polydatin abrogated NSP6-induced pyroptosis. NSP6 directly interacted with ATP6AP1, a vacuolar ATPase proton pump component, and inhibited its cleavage-mediated activation. L37F NSP6 variant, which was associated with asymptomatic COVID-19, exhibited reduced binding to ATP6AP1 and weakened ability to impair lysosome acidification to induce pyroptosis. Consistently, infection of cultured lung epithelial cells with live SARS-CoV-2 resulted in autophagic flux stagnation, inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis. Overall, this work supports that NSP6 of SARS-CoV-2 could induce inflammatory cell death in lung epithelial cells, through which pharmacological rectification of autophagic flux might be therapeutically exploited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 409, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of people worldwide. Psychological resilience has been shown to buffer against the threat of the pandemic (i.e., COVID-19 fear) and sustain mental health. The extent to which psychological resilience factors impact mental health maintenance, however, is unclear, given broad differences in infection rates, prevention approaches, government interventions across different cultures and contexts. Our study examines resilience factors and how they protect individuals from COVID-19-related fear and sustain their mental health. DATA DESCRIPTION: Data were collected from 1583 (Mage = 32.22, SD = 12.90, Range = 19-82) respondents from Japan, China, the United States, and Malaysia between October to November 2020. We collected data across age and sex, marital status, number of children, and occupations. We also accounted for stay-at-home measures, change in income, COVID-19 infection status, place of residence, and subjective social status in the study. Our variables included mental health-related and resilience constructs, namely (i) fear of COVID-19, (ii) depression, anxiety, and stress; (iii) present, past, and future life satisfaction, (iv) sense of control, (v) positive emotions, (vi) ego-resilience, (vii) grit, (viii) self-compassion, (ix) passion, and (x) relational mobility. All questionnaires were assessed for their suitability across the four countries with the necessary translation checks. Results from this study can be instrumental in examining the impact of multiple resilience factors and their interaction with demographic variables in shaping mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety , Child , Depression , Fear , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
15.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 548-561.e4, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with altered gut microbiota composition. Phylogenetic groups of gut bacteria involved in the metabolism of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were depleted in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We aimed to characterize a functional profile of the gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples from 66 antibiotics-naïve patients with COVID-19 and 70 non-COVID-19 controls. Serial fecal samples were collected (at up to 6 times points) during hospitalization and beyond 1 month after discharge. We assessed gut microbial pathways in association with disease severity and blood inflammatory markers. We also determined changes of microbial functions in fecal samples before and after disease resolution and validated these functions using targeted analysis of fecal metabolites. RESULTS: Compared with non-COVID-19 controls, patients with COVID-19 with severe/critical illness showed significant alterations in gut microbiome functionality (P < .001), characterized by impaired capacity of gut microbiome for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis and enhanced capacity for urea production. Impaired SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in gut microbiome persisted beyond 30 days after recovery in patients with COVID-19. Targeted analysis of fecal metabolites showed significantly lower fecal concentrations of SCFAs and L-isoleucine in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. Lack of SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis significantly correlated with disease severity and increased plasma concentrations of CXCL-10, NT- proB-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiome of patients with COVID-19 displayed impaired capacity for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis that persisted even after disease resolution. These 2 microbial functions correlated with host immune response underscoring the importance of gut microbial functions in SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Immunity/physiology , Isoleucine/biosynthesis , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(9): 1027-1038, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing number of clinical trials relating to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), it is crucial to identify and recruit long-term, healthy, and regular fecal donors. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the outcomes of screening and recruitment of fecal donors for FMT. METHODS: Potential donors were recruited via advertisement through internal mass emails at a university. They were required to undergo a pre-screening telephone interview, a detailed questionnaire, followed by blood and stool investigations. RESULTS: From January 2017 to December 2020, 119 potential donors were assessed with 75 failed pre-screening. Reasons for failure included: inability to come back for regular and long-term donation (n = 19), high body mass index (n = 17), underlying chronic illness or on long-term medications (n = 11), being healthcare professionals (n = 10), use of antibiotics within 3 months (n = 5) and others (n = 13). Forty-four donors completed questionnaires and 11 did not fulfill the clinical criteria. Of the remaining 33 potential donors who had stool and blood tests, 21 failed stool investigations (19 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] organisms, one Clostridioides difficile, one C. difficile plus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), one failed blood tests (high serum alkaline phosphatase level), one required long-term medication and nine withdrew consent and/or lost to follow-up. In total, only one out of 119 (0.8%) potential donors was successfully recruited as a regular donor. CONCLUSION: There was a high failure rate in donor screening for FMT. Main reasons for screening failure included high prevalence of positive ESBL organisms in stool and failed commitment to regular stool donation.


Subject(s)
Donor Selection , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Feces/microbiology , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases
18.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1466-1475, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343667

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide, causing significant mortality. There is a mechanistic relationship between intracellular coronavirus replication and deregulated autophagosome-lysosome system. We performed transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients and identified the aberrant upregulation of genes in the lysosome pathway. We further determined the capability of two circulating markers, namely microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) and (p62/SQSTM1) p62, both of which depend on lysosome for degradation, in predicting the emergence of moderate-to-severe disease in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization for supplemental oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analyses showed that LC3B was associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, independent of age, sex and clinical risk score. A decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml increased the risk of oxygen and ventilatory requirement (adjusted odds ratio: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-22.0; P = 0.04). Serum concentrations of p62 in the moderate-to-severe group were significantly lower in patients aged 50 or below. In conclusion, lysosome function is deregulated in PBMCs isolated from COVID-19 patients, and the related biomarker LC3B may serve as a novel tool for stratifying patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 from those with asymptomatic or mild disease. COVID-19 patients with a decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml will require early hospital admission for supplemental oxygen therapy and other respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Autophagy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Cycle , Cholesterol/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Binding Proteins/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6): 2195-2196, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287837
20.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(10): 2210-2213.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252551

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 29 million people and led to more than 542,000 deaths in the United States.1 Older age, comorbidities, and racial and ethnic minority status are associated with severe COVID-19.2 Among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), racial and ethnic minorities have worse outcomes, mediated in part by inequitable health care access.3 Racial and ethnic minority patients with IBD and COVID-19 may be an especially vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among IBD patients and the impact of non-IBD comorbidities on observed disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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