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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786111

ABSTRACT

Poorer outcomes have been reported with COVID-19 and influenza coinfections. As the COVID-19 pandemic rages on, protection against influenza by vaccination is becoming increasingly important. This study examines how COVID-19 has influenced influenza vaccination intentions from a global perspective. A literature search was conducted on Embase, PubMed, and CNKI from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2021 for articles reporting rates of influenza vaccination pre-COVID-19 (19/20 season), and intention and/or uptake of influenza vaccination post-COVID-19 (20/21 season). The changes in vaccination intention and reasons for changes were reported. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, gender, age, and occupation. Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment of the articles. Twenty-seven studies with 39,193 participants were included. Among 22 studies reporting intention to vaccinate in 20/21, there was increased intention to vaccinate (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.32-1.69, p < 0.001) regardless of age, gender, and occupation. The remaining five studies reporting vaccination intention and uptake in 20/21 showed a similar increase (RR 1.68, 95%CI 1.20-2.36). Important determinants include historical vaccine acceptance, and perception of influenza severity and vaccine safety. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased intention to vaccinate against influenza internationally. The pandemic could be a window of opportunity to promote influenza vaccination and decrease vaccine hesitancy.

2.
J Hum Lact ; 38(1): 37-42, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-approval clinical trials of the Pfizer/BioNTech messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2 did not include participants who were breastfeeding. Therefore, there is limited evidence about outcomes of breastfeeding mother-child dyads and effects on breastfeeding after vaccination. RESEARCH AIMS: To determine: (1) solicited adverse effects (e.g., axillary lymphadenopathy, mastitis, and breast engorgement), which are unique to lactating individuals; and (2) systemic and local adverse effects of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine on mothers and potential effects on their breastfed infants. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study of lactating healthcare workers (N = 88) in Singapore who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination (Pfizer/BioNTech). The outcomes of mother-child dyads within 28 days after the second vaccine dose were determined through a participant-completed questionnaire. RESULTS: Minimal effects related to breastfeeding were reported by this cohort; three of 88 (3.4%) participants had mastitis, one (1.1%) participant experienced breast engorgement, five of 88 (5.7%) participants reported cervical or axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no change in human milk supply after vaccination. The most common side effect was pain/redness/swelling at the injection site, which was experienced by 57 (64.8%) participants. There were no serious adverse events of anaphylaxis or hospital admissions. There were no short-term adverse effects reported in the infants of 67 lactating participants who breastfed within 72 hr after BNT162b2 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccination was well tolerated in lactating participants and was not associated with short-term adverse effects in their breastfed infants. STUDY PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04802278).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Mothers , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 105, 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366818

ABSTRACT

Lactating women can produce protective antibodies in their milk after vaccination, which has informed antenatal vaccination programs for diseases such as influenza and pertussis. However, whether SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are produced in human milk as a result of COVID-19 vaccination is still unclear. In this study, we show that lactating mothers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine secreted SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG antibodies into milk, with the most significant increase at 3-7 days post-dose 2. Virus-specific IgG titers were stable out to 4-6 weeks after dose 2. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA levels showed substantial decay. Vaccine mRNA was detected in few milk samples (maximum of 2 ng/ml), indicative of minimal transfer. Additionally, infants who consumed post-vaccination human milk had no reported adverse effects up to 28 days post-ingestion. Our results define the safety and efficacy profiles of the vaccine in this demographic and provide initial evidence for protective immunity conferred by milk-borne SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Taken together, our study supports recommendations for uninterrupted breastfeeding subsequent to mRNA vaccination against COVID-19.

4.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(2): 174-180, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Synthesise evidence on production of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human milk of individuals who had COVID-19, and antibodies' ability to neutralise SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. DESIGN: A systematic review of studies published from 1 December 2019 to 16 February 2021 without study design restrictions. SETTING: Data were sourced from PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CNKI, CINAHL and WHO COVID-19 database. Search was also performed through reviewing references of selected articles, Google Scholar and preprint servers. Studies that tested human milk for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were included. PATIENTS: Individuals with COVID-19 infection and human milk tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of neutralising antibodies in milk samples provided by individuals with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Individual participant data from 161 persons (14 studies) were extracted and re-pooled. Milk from 133 (82.6%) individuals demonstrated the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM and/or IgG. Illness severity data were available in 146 individuals; 5 (3.4%) had severe disease, 128 (87.7%) had mild disease, while 13 (8.9%) were asymptomatic. Presence of neutralising antibodies in milk from 20 (41.7%) of 48 individuals neutralised SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in vitro. Neutralising capacity of antibodies was lost after Holder pasteurisation but preserved after high-pressure pasteurisation. CONCLUSION: Human milk of lactating individuals after COVID-19 infection contains anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM and/or IgA, even after mild or asymptomatic infection. Current evidence demonstrates that these antibodies can neutralise SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. Holder pasteurisation deactivates SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, while high-pressure pasteurisation preserves the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Humans , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192706

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we provide guidance to clinicians who care for infants born to mothers with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 during this current pandemic. We reviewed available literature and international guidelines based on the following themes: delivery room management; infection control and prevention strategies; neonatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing; breastfeeding and breastmilk feeding; rooming-in of mother-infant; respiratory support precautions; visiting procedures; de-isolation and discharge of infant; outpatient clinic attendance; transport of infant; and training of healthcare staff. This guidance for clinical care was proposed and contextualised for the local setting via consensus by members of this workgroup and was based on evidence available as of 31 July 2020, and may change as new evidence emerges.

7.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1377-1384, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752407

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in changes to perinatal and neonatal care, concentrating on minimizing risks of transmission to the newborn and health care staff while ensuring medical care is not compromised for both mother and infant. Current recommendations on infant care and feeding when mother has COVID-19 ranges from mother-infant separation and avoidance of human milk feeding, to initiation of early skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding. Health care providers fearing risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) maternal-infant transmission may veer toward restricted breastfeeding practices. We reviewed guidelines and published literature and propose three options for infant feeding depending on various scenarios. Option A involves direct breastfeeding with the infant being cared for by the mother or caregiver. In option B, the infant is cared for by another caregiver and receives mother's expressed milk. In the third option, the infant is not breastfed directly and does not receive mother's expressed milk. We recommend joint decision making by parents and the health care team. This decision is also flexible as situation changes. We also provide a framework for counseling mothers on these options using a visual aid and a corresponding structured training program for health care providers. Future research questions are also proposed. We conclude that evidence and knowledge about COVID-19 and breastfeeding are still evolving. Our options can provide a quick and flexible reference guide that can be adapted to local needs. KEY POINTS: · SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely transmitted via human milk.. · A shared decision making on infant feeding is the preferred approach.. · Mothers can safely breastfeed with appropriate infection control measures..


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Counseling/methods , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Behavior , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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