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Int J Hydrogen Energy ; 47(100): 42051-42074, 2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509861


Usage of plastics in the form of personal protective equipment, medical devices, and common packages has increased alarmingly during these pandemic times. Though they have served as an excellent protection source in minimizing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spreading, they have still emerged as major environmental pollutants nowadays. These non-degradable COVID-19 plastic wastes (CPW) were treated through incineration and landfilling process, which may lead to either the release of harmful gases or contaminating the surrounding environment. Further, they can cause numerous health hazards to the human and animal populations. These plastic wastes can be efficiently managed through thermochemical processes like pyrolysis or gasification, which assist in degrading the plastic waste and also effectively convert them into useful energy-yielding products. The pyrolysis process promotes the formation of liquid fuels and chemicals, whereas gasification leads to syngas and hydrogen fuel production. These energy-yielding products can help to compensate for the fossil fuels depletion in the near future. There are many insights explained in terms of the types of reactors and influential factors that can be adopted for the pyrolysis and gasification process, to produce high efficient energy products from the wastes. In addition, advanced technologies including co-gasification and two-stage gasification were also reviewed.

Environ Technol Innov ; 20: 101151, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343208


Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has globally affected the human mortality rate and economic history of the modern world. According to the World Health Organization, COVID-19 has caused a severe threat to the health of the vulnerable groups, notably the elderly. There is still some disagreements regarding the source of the virus and its intermediate host. However, the spread of this disease has caused most countries to enforce strict curfew laws and close most industrial and recreational centres. This study aims to show the potential positive effects of COVID-19 on the environment and the increase of renewable energy generation in Malaysia. To prevent the spread of this disease, Malaysia enacted the Movement Control Order (MCO) law in March 2020. Implementation of this law led to a reduction in environmental pollution, especially air pollution, in this country. The greenhouse gases (GHG) emission , which was 8 Mt CO2 eq. from January 2020 to March 2020, reduced to <1 Mt CO2 eq. for April and May. The reduction of GHG emission and pollutant gases allowed more sunlight to reach photovoltaic panels, hence increasing the renewable energy generation.

Chemosphere ; 275: 130092, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095908


COVID-19 has led to the enormous rise of medical wastes throughout the world, and these have mainly been generated from hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare establishments. This creates an additional challenge in medical waste management, particularly in developing countries. Improper managing of medical waste may have serious public health issues and a significant impact on the environment. There are currently three disinfection technologies, namely incineration, chemical and physical processes, that are available to treat COVID-19 medical waste (CMW). This study focuses on thermochemical process, particularly pyrolysis process to treat the medical waste. Pyrolysis is a process that utilizes the thermal instability of organic components in medical waste to convert them into valuable products. Besides, the technique is environmentally friendly, more efficient and cost-effective, requires less landfill capacity, and causes lower pollution. The current pandemic situation generates a large amount of plastic medical wastes, which mainly consists of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, and nylon. These plastic wastes can be converted into valuable energy products like oil, gas and char through pyrolysis process. This review provides detailed information about CMW handling, treatment, valuable product generation, and proper discharge into the open environment.

COVID-19 , Medical Waste , Humans , Incineration , Pyrolysis , SARS-CoV-2
Chemosphere ; 272: 129601, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014402


Recently, the COVID-19 disease spread has emerged as a worldwide pandemic and cause severe threats to humanity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) releases guidelines to help the countries to reduce the spread of this virus to the public, like wearing masks, hand hygiene, social distancing, shutting down all types of public transports, etc. These conditions led to a worldwide economic fall drastically, and on the other hand, indirect environmental benefits like global air quality improvement and decreased water pollution are also pictured. Currently, use of face masks is part of a comprehensive package of the prevention and control measures that can limit the spread of COVID-19 since there is no clinically proven drugs or vaccine available for COVID-19. Mostly, face masks are made of petroleum-based non-renewable polymers that are non-biodegradable, hazardous to the environment and create health issues. This study demonstrates the extensive use of the face mask and how it affects human health and the marine ecosystem. It has become a great challenge for the government sectors to impose strict regulations for the proper disposal of the masks as medical waste by the public. Neglecting the seriousness of this issue may lead to the release of large tonnes of micro-plastics to the landfill as well as to the marine environment where mostly end-up and thereby affecting their fauna and flora population vastly. Besides, this study highlights the COVID-19 spread, its evolutionary importance, taxonomy, genomic structure, transmission to humans, prevention, and treatment.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ecosystem , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2