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1.
Journal of Organizational Behavior Research ; 8(1):12-24, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2325227

ABSTRACT

During the COVID19 pandemic, Vietnam implemented social distancing measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ordering, delivery, and transportation services through applications of logistics technology develop rapidly. This study aims to determine how factors of delivery service affect customer satisfaction in the context of the Covid19 pandemic. Qualitative and quantitative research was carried out to determine the quality factors of ordering and delivery services via Grab's application in order to propose a research model. Surveyed data from 259 customers who are using Grab's app services in gio Chi Minh City during the lockdown period. Research results have shown that all five factors of delivery service quality via the Grab application have a significant impact on customer satisfaction. In particular, assurance and price policy are the most influential factors in customer satisfaction, followed by service competence and responsiveness. The research implications have been proposed to improve and enhance Grab customer satisfaction.

2.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S39, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325220

ABSTRACT

While the World Health Organization strongly recommends HIV self-testing (HIVST) as an approach to HIV testing services, scale up has been minimal in low- and middle-income countries. Vietnam has successfully delivered HIVST at scale for key populations (KP), including men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, female sex workers and their partners. We reviewed data from the USAID/PATH Healthy Markets (2014-2021), including consumer surveys, HIVST usability and performance assessments, and service data to summarize the five stages of HIVST scale-up in Vietnam: 1) Assessing HIVST acceptability, preferences, and willingness to pay (WTP);2) Piloting HIVST;3) Developing HIVST policies and assessing products;4) Facilitating HIVST market authorization;and 5) Implementing differentiated service models. A '5A' approach was employed to shape HIVST markets, i.e., improving affordability, enhancing availability, assuring quality, ensuring appropriate design, and boosting awareness and demand. We assessed key factors related to HIVST supply and demand. In terms of supply, the median price people were willing to pay was US$4.3 per test. HIVST products with stringent regulatory approval successfully obtained free sale certificate registration, and blood-based HIVST products were highly accurate (99%-99.8%). Differentiated HIVST distribution models played a significant role in scaling-up HIVST and ensuring uninterrupted access to essential HIV services, e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis monitoring during COVID-19 lock-downs. Related to demand and testing uptake, the majority of KPs accessing HIVST were first time HIV testers. Creative online-to-offline behavior change communication increased client awareness, trust, and use of HIVST. HIVST was successful in reaching first-time testers who may not otherwise test or seek facility-based care. HIVST is an effective strategy for reaching undiagnosed individuals and is accepted and preferred by KPs. HIVST scale-up requires enabling policy, intensive demand generation efforts, and differentiated service models.Copyright © 2023

3.
International Journal of Hospitality Management TI -?Are your employees mentally prepared for the pandemic?? Wellbeing-oriented human resource management practices in a developing country ; 109, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310127

ABSTRACT

Employees are the most valuable asset of any service business because of its human-centric nature. However, in the crisis situations, the human side in crisis management strategy, particularly in the areas of human resource management is largely overlooked. The present study explores how human resource management (HRM) practices in the pre-crisis stage could build a good foundation of psychological capital (PsyCap) for tourism and hospitality staff to be mentally resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic. Grounded on the conservation of resource (COR) theory, research hypotheses are developed and then empirically tested using a sample of 760 employees in various tourism and hospitality companies. Research outcomes demonstrate that wellbeing oriented HRM policies (specifically employee development and employee empowerment policies) in the pre crisis stage increases employee PsyCap during the pandemic, leading to the preservation of their wellbeing. More importantly, employees' family financial burden is found as a moderating factor, altering the influences of HRM policies on employee PsyCap and their in-crisis wellbeing. Therefore, wellbeing-oriented HRM could be part of crisis preparedness strategy for tourism and hospitality businesses as well as crucial element of the internal corporate social responsibility portfolio in tourism and hospitality businesses. In developing countries, where less financial support and fewer job security policies are available during crises than in the developed world, the application of wellbeing-oriented HRM becomes even more critical.

5.
Regional Studies, Regional Science ; 10(1):418-438, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2300886

ABSTRACT

Although house prices and airports are influenced by distinct factors that shape their evolutions, they are also intrinsically connected through the natural and built environment. Standard theory suggests that air-traffic noise and proximity to key economic hubs such as airports are of prime importance to house prices and the housing market. This study contributes to understanding the link between the housing market, airport location proximity and air traffic. The research investigates this association across four key urban areas within New Zealand proximal to an international airport: Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Queenstown. Applying a generalized least squares (GLS) regression approach, the analysis reveals that house prices, air-traffic activity and proximity to airports within New Zealand demonstrate a statistically significant effect, and that air traffic volume has a positive effect on house prices. Moreover, the findings reveal a ‘U'-shape relationship between distance to the airport and house prices, suggesting that airport noise and pollution adversely affect house prices, with this effect diminishing with distance, indicating that economic influences and employment may also serve as a positive externality. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

6.
International Journal of Hospitality Management ; 109, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2243745

ABSTRACT

Employees are the most valuable asset of any service business because of its human-centric nature. However, in the crisis situations, the human side in crisis management strategy, particularly in the areas of human resource management is largely overlooked. The present study explores how human resource management (HRM) practices in the pre-crisis stage could build a good foundation of psychological capital (PsyCap) for tourism and hospitality staff to be mentally resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic. Grounded on the conservation of resource (COR) theory, research hypotheses are developed and then empirically tested using a sample of 760 employees in various tourism and hospitality companies. Research outcomes demonstrate that wellbeing-oriented HRM policies (specifically employee development and employee empowerment policies) in the pre-crisis stage increases employee PsyCap during the pandemic, leading to the preservation of their wellbeing. More importantly, employees' family financial burden is found as a moderating factor, altering the influences of HRM policies on employee PsyCap and their in-crisis wellbeing. Therefore, wellbeing-oriented HRM could be part of crisis preparedness strategy for tourism and hospitality businesses as well as crucial element of the internal corporate social responsibility portfolio in tourism and hospitality businesses. In developing countries, where less financial support and fewer job security policies are available during crises than in the developed world, the application of wellbeing-oriented HRM becomes even more critical. © 2023

7.
International Journal of Hospitality Management ; 109, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2233756

ABSTRACT

Employees are the most valuable asset of any service business because of its human-centric nature. However, in the crisis situations, the human side in crisis management strategy, particularly in the areas of human resource management is largely overlooked. The present study explores how human resource management (HRM) practices in the pre-crisis stage could build a good foundation of psychological capital (PsyCap) for tourism and hospitality staff to be mentally resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic. Grounded on the conservation of resource (COR) theory, research hypotheses are developed and then empirically tested using a sample of 760 employees in various tourism and hospitality companies. Research outcomes demonstrate that wellbeing oriented HRM policies (specifically employee development and employee empowerment policies) in the pre crisis stage increases employee PsyCap during the pandemic, leading to the preservation of their wellbeing. More importantly, employees' family financial burden is found as a moderating factor, altering the influences of HRM policies on employee PsyCap and their in-crisis wellbeing. Therefore, wellbeing-oriented HRM could be part of crisis preparedness strategy for tourism and hospitality businesses as well as crucial element of the internal corporate social responsibility portfolio in tourism and hospitality businesses. In developing countries, where less financial support and fewer job security policies are available during crises than in the developed world, the application of wellbeing-oriented HRM becomes even more critical.

8.
13th International Conference on E-Business, Management and Economics, ICEME 2022 ; : 656-663, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2194088

ABSTRACT

Tiktok rose in the COVID-19 pandemic as a platform for video-sharing that ensures community connection and prevention of pessimism during social distancing. It is of special importance to thoroughly understand its potential in providing information and lockdown optimism, and its potential to cause harm on impressionable young users who occupy a great part of the Tiktok community. This research is implemented in order to learn more about young users' behaviours and their reaction towards common Tiktok contents which depict Tiktok impacts. We developed a survey using both quantitative and qualitative questions, concentrating on user habits, well-known content categories on Vietnamese Tiktok and how they may affect users' perception. 253 participants aged 16-22 in Mekong Delta, Vietnam were involved. Data revealed that young users had higher awareness of toxic contents than was assumed by previous academic works, and eager to diminish these harms. Qualitative answers provided notions about several toxic and inappropriate contents that were not previously addressed. The research also noticed a slight hint of "Tiktok prejudice"which was the fixed concept that Tiktok was negative, inspiring future extensive research. © 2022 ACM.

9.
9th International Conference on Future Data and Security Engineering, FDSE 2022 ; 1688 CCIS:462-476, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173960

ABSTRACT

Thousands of infections, hundreds of deaths every day - these are numbers that speak the current serious status, numbers that each of us is no longer unfamiliar with in the current context, the context of the raging epidemic - Coronavirus disease epidemic. Therefore, we need solutions and technologies to fight the epidemic promptly and quickly to prevent or reduce the effect of the epidemic. Numerous studies have warned that if we contact an infected person within a distance of fewer than two meters, it can be considered a high risk of infecting Coronavirus. To detect a contact distance shorter than two meters and provides warnings to violations in monitoring systems based on a camera, we present an approach to solving two problems, including detecting objects - here are humans and calculating the distance between objects using Chessboard and bird's eye perspective. We have leveraged the pre-trained InceptionV2 model, a famous convolutional neural network for object detection, to detect people in the video. Also, we propose to use a perspective transformation algorithm for the distance calculation converting pixels from the camera perspective to a bird's eye view. Then, we choose the minimum distance from the distance in the determined field to the distance in pixels and calculate the distance violation based on the bird's eye view, with camera calibration and minimum distance selection process based on field distance. The proposed method is tested in some scenarios to provide warnings of social distancing violations. The work is expected to generate a safe area providing warnings to protect employees in administrative environments with a high risk of contacting numerous people. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

10.
International Journal of Data and Network Science ; 7(1):363-368, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2202641

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to analyze the factors influencing the utilization of an E-Learning system in training repatriated workers in Vietnam's urban regions in the new context. According to research findings, professional qualifications and education have a significant influence on the income and employment of repatriated workers in urban regions. E-Learning systems are employed as an effective channel to transfer information and skills to workers in urban areas to fulfill the improvement of professional certifications and professional abilities of workers. The analysis results also show that several factors have a significant impact on the usage of the E-Learning online training system for employees in Vietnam's urban regions, including the factor representing the ease of use of the E-learning system, Easy access to E-Learning system scale has the highest influence score with coefficient 0.932, the factor Learners feel useful, the scale of saving time getting to the study location has an influence coefficient of 0.965, and the element reflecting the joy of learning, the scale of getting more highly rated experiences have the greatest influence with a coefficient of 0.942. Data for the study were obtained from 188 repatriated laborers in urban regions of Vietnam. The multivariate regression analysis method and factor analysis were utilized to analyze the data in the study with the help of SPSS 20.0 software. © 2023 by the authors;licensee Growing Science, Canada.

11.
12th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management, ICSECM 2021 ; 266:501-510, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2094522

ABSTRACT

Construction logistics is one of the essential functions in the modular construction industry due to the high demand for on-time delivery of components. For modular component suppliers, there is minimal flexibility in delivery times as generally, the installation times of modular components are critical to the contractor’s construction programme. There are several studies conducted in recent years that articulate novel methodologies in construction logistics scheduling;however, the industry still faces challenges in streamlining the whole supply chain to better cater to potential uncertainties that impact construction logistics. This paper looks at a case study on a modular component supplier in Melbourne, with regarding to the challenges faced and how they have effectively overcome these challenges and provides a framework to mitigate construction logistics related discrepancies in the supply chain. The resilience of these methods in facing unforeseen events such as COVID-19 will also be discussed. The overarching objectives of this paper are to include: (1) bibliographic mapping of related publications;(2) identification of current methods, problems and technologies used in modular construction logistics;and (3) propose best practice guidelines that can be implemented to effectively cater to such uncertainties in construction logistics to minimise the impact on the supply chain. Further, incorporating lean principles for planning construction logistics and transport for the modular construction industry is also in discussion. Finally, the potential future research directions are highlighted to guide the researchers to pursue areas of much importance. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A551, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060628

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Aortitis is a type of vasculitis that refers to inflammation of the aortic wall. Most common causes are rheumatologic disorders and bacterial infection. Here, we report a viral cause of aortitis induced by COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73 year old female with history of coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, COPD, hypertension, pulmonary embolism on Eliquis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) status post repair presented with acute hypoxemia secondary to Covid-19 pneumonia. Of note, patient was vaccinated against COVID-19. CT abdomen at admission demonstrated a known infrarenal AAA with increased degree aortic wall thickening, concerning for aortitis. Aortitis was initially thought to be due to endovascular infection from possible bacteremia rather than surgical site infection as the patient had the AAA repair almost a year prior. Given that bacterial aortitis could result in death, blood cultures were obtained and she was started on Vancomycin and Rocephin. Rapid Plasma Reagin was ordered to rule out syphilis. She had titer of 1-2 which was thought to be false positive as fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test was negative. After blood cultures and inflammatory markers were negative, antibiotics were discontinued. Aortitis was attributed to COVID. Patient was treated with DEXA-ARDS protocol. Repeat CT abdomen after 8 days no longer showed gross evidence of aortitis. Patient was discharged home with home healthcare. DISCUSSION: Aortitis, a rare complication of COVID-19, has been reported. A proposed mechanism of this pathogenesis involves acute endotheliitis, where endothelial cells infected by virions become infiltrated by neutrophils and mononuclear cells, leading to apoptosis and lymphocytic endotheliitis [1]. Later, these arteries move through the stages of an accelerated karyolysis, accumulation of apoptotic bodies, caspase granules, and fibrinoid substances, leading to leukocytoclastic vasculitis [1]. This inflammatory reaction is followed by deposition of polyclonal antigen-antibody immune complexes, which is a type III hypersensitivity acute vasculitis [2]. Our patient's history of AAA repair predisposed her to increased endothelial dysfunction. After other bacterial infectious causes and post-surgical complications were ruled out, patient was treated with steroids. Most cases of COVID induced aortitis have been treated with prednisone that required treatment for around 1 month [3]. Here, we present a patient treated with DEXA-ARDS with resolution of aortitis. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the novelty, the understanding of exact pathogenesis and long term effects of COVID-19 induced aortitis is limited. However, our case does serve to support prior case reports of COVID-19 aortitis that showed clinical and radiologic response to steroids. Further research is warranted to diagnose and treat aortitis in order to avoid life threating complications. Reference #1: Varga, Zsuzsanna, et al. "Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19.” The Lancet 395.10234 (2020): 1417-1418. Reference #2: Roncati, Luca, et al. "Type 3 hypersensitivity in COVID-19 vasculitis.” (2020): 108487-108489. Reference #3: Dhakal, Pravash et al. "Aortitis in COVID-19.” IDCases vol. 24 (2021): e01063. doi:10.1016/j.idcr.2021.e01063 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jessica Lee No relevant relationships by Thong Ngo No relevant relationships by Marrian Sedrak No relevant relationships by Hena Yagnik

13.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003043

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic brought shelter-in-place orders by public health organizations and eliminated large gatherings. Training programs abruptly stopped in-person learning to ensure the safety of medical trainees and redesigned curricula to use virtual platforms for didactic learning with variable success. Trainees had decreased patient contact time as pediatric emergency department (ED) patient volumes dropped, operative cases were canceled, clinic visits rescheduled, and use of telehealth visits became more prominent. Resident well-being became even more vital with social isolation and fears of infecting loved ones increased. Our study evaluated the impacts of COVID-19 on pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship programs, including effects on fellows' clinical, didactic, and research experiences, and effects on fellows' health and wellbeing. Methods: Two surveys were developed using an iterative process by the PEM Collaborative Scholarship Committee, 1 for program leadership (29 questions) and 1 for trainees (27 questions). Surveys were approved and distributed by the PEMPD Survey Committee to program directors (PD) a total of 3 times in 2-week intervals. PDs were asked to forward the trainee survey to their fellows. Survey responses were anonymous. Survey questions met our study objectives and consisted of multiple choice, 5-point Likert scale, and free text responses. Surveys were completed online using Qualtrics software between March 17, 2021 and April 19, 2021. Results: PDs had a 56.8% (50/88) response rate, fellows 34.6% (144/416). The majority of PD responses represented the Northeast US (n = 18) followed by the Midwest (n = 10). For trainees, responses mostly represented the Midwest (n = 39) followed by the Northeast (n = 38). Fifty-seven respondents self-identified as 1st year, 41 as 2nd years, 45 as 3rd years and 1 as 4th year fellows. All PDs reported a decrease in patient volumes during the height of the pandemic, estimating volumes decreased by 25-50% (n = 17, 36%), 51-75% (n = 20, 43%), or >75% (n = 10, 21%). Most common responses included change in rotations and block schedules, didactics moving to a virtual platform, increased frequency of speakers from outside the institution, fellows being able to participate in COVID related research, and additional mental health services for providers (see Table 1). Reasons for changes to the rotation schedules included rotation cancelations, extra time in the pediatric ED, modifications to rotations, and pregnancy (see Figure 1). PDs and trainees report being required to provide service to COVID patients outside of a pediatric ED. Commonly cited locations included the adult ED and medical intensive care units (MICU). Conclusion: COVID-19 had a clear impact on PEM fellowship training including decreases in pediatric patient volumes, canceled electives, increased care of adults, and altered didactics/conferences in accordance to CDC guidelines. The impact of these changes remains unclear. Future research might assess pandemic-related differences on intraining exam scores or how prepared fellows feel for unsupervised practice.

14.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 22(4):9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1780178

ABSTRACT

Measures to contain COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan included international travel restrictions since February 2020, which resulted in a nearly 80% reduction of aviation volume at the International Taoyuan Airport (TPE), while industry and ground traffic continued to operate unaffected by the pandemic. This study attempted to assess the contribution of aviation volume to air pollution measured by a monitoring station, located 2 km southwest to the airport. We applied cluster analysis to identify TPE contribution to the major air pollutants and estimated their relationship with the number of passengers as a proxy to the flights number. From the airport containing cluster, we observed significant reduction of air pollution concentrations after the travel restrictions. The reduction percentage of SO2 and NOx was higher in the airport cluster (17.7% and 7.3%, respectively) compared to the total station observation (14.7% and 6.8% respectively). Spearman's coefficients indicated positive significant correlations between the number of passengers and PM2.5 (0.06), PM10 (0.21), SO2 (0.24), especially after the travel restrictions. Such low correlations were found due to the distance of 2 km between the monitoring station and the airport runway. This distance could be too far to precisely detect the contribution of aviation to air pollution, which was masked by industrial activities and ground traffic. Measuring air pollution at a closer distance to the runways is required for a better catchment of aviation impact on air quality.

15.
Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business ; 9(1):213-218, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1627076

ABSTRACT

The study's goal is to determine how factors affecting tourism resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic affect Ho Chi Minh Tourism's ability to respond to changes and disruptions. The model and research hypotheses were tested using Multiple Regression Analysis Models. The statistical findings showed that the tourism resilience components have a significant influence on the tourism resilience in Ho Chi Minh city. The analyses revealed that tourism resilience consisted of four latent dimensions. There are 4 explanatory variables with a significance coefficient < 0.05. Therefore, the variables Economic resilience, Ecological resilience, Institutional resilience, and Social resilience all have a significant impact on tourist resilience, which is consistent with Jamaliah and Powell (2017). The findings have important managerial implications for local governments, as well as factors that contribute to tourism resilience, as they must attempt to adapt to changes and turbulences during a pandemic, ensuring that the tourism system rebounds in the future. The four components of tourist resilience are defined in the theoretical contribution. The findings of the study could serve as a starting point for developing future tourist resilience strategies. Because the application of tourist resilience theory is still relatively new, this study presents two theoretical and methodological contributions.

16.
Cogent Business & Management ; 8(1):19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550504

ABSTRACT

Environmental protection and high economic growth are the global requirement and have attracted the special attention of researchers and policymakers. Thus, the current study is also going to examine the impact of green finance that includes green investment and green loan on the economic growth of Vietnam. The data have been obtained from the central bank of Vietnam and World Bank Indicators (WDI) from 1986 to 2019. This study also executed the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to examine the links among the variables. The results exposed that green finance along with all control variables have a positive association with economic growth. These outcomes have guided regulators to increase their focus on green finance that could increase the economic growth in the country.

19.
International Journal of Remote Sensing ; 42(16):6128-6154, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1281775

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease) pandemic has been spreading globally and social isolation has been implemented as an effective solution to limit the spread of the pandemic before vaccines are developed successfully. The reduction of human activities during social isolation is leading to an improvement in air quality being observed worldwide. In this study, we analysed satellite TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 products obtained from Sentinel-5P and Aura satellites, respectively, during the social isolation from 1 April 2020 to 22 April 2020 in Vietnam where air pollution is a serious environmental issue. Both TROPOMI and OMI NO2 have shown low agreement with local on-ground NO2 concentration (the correlation coefficient r equals 0.4 and 0.3 in 2020, respectively) but have had moderate correlation with each other in 2020 (r equals 0.81 for two annual averaged maps). In addition, the moderate available data ratio over cloudy northern areas were observed, especially for TROPOMI datasets. During social isolation, the national average NO2 decreased by 9.3% for TROPOMI and 7.2% for OMI, respectively, in comparison with the same periods in the previous years. The reduction was stronger in the North than in the South and lasted for one more month after the lockdown period. The decrease of NO2 density during the lockdown was observed strongly in urban areas associated with dense population, traffic density, and industrial zones. Further analysis of NO2 density for Ho Chi Minh city revealed a decreasing trend of NO2 during social isolation (16.62% and 11.77% compared with the previous month and the same period in 2019, respectively). Furthermore, we used a random forest model to estimate the NO2 density (normal life situations) based on daily meteorological data at station. During social isolation, NO2 density observed in Ho Chi Minh city decreased by 26% down to that of normal life situations. The NO2 reduction has shown strong anthropogenic impact on air pollution over the study area. Besides, the first use of TROPOMI and OMI NO2 products together has highlighted potentials of satellite observation for air quality monitoring and analysis in Vietnam where on-ground measurements are very limited. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

20.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):50-51, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250722

ABSTRACT

Background: One third of COVID-19 patients develop significant neurological symptoms, yet SARS-CoV-2 is rarely detected in central nervous system (CNS) tissue, suggesting a potential role for parainfectious processes, including neuroimmune responses. Methods: We examined immune parameters in CSF and blood samples from a cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and significant neurological complications (n=6), compared to SARS-CoV-2 uninfected controls (Fig1A). Immune cells were characterized by single cell RNA and repertoire sequencing. Intrathecal antibodies were assessed for anti-viral and auto-reactivity by ELISA, mouse brain immunostaining, phage display, and IP-MS. Results: Through single cell and parallel cytokine analyses of CSF and paired plasma, we found divergent T cell responses in the CNS compartment, including increased levels of IL-1B and IL-12-associated innate and adaptive immune cell activation (Fig1B). We found evidence of clonal expansion of B cells in the CSF, with B cell receptor sequences that were unique from those observed in peripheral blood B cells (Fig1C), suggesting a divergent intrathecal humoral response to SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, all COVID-19 cases examined had anti-SARS-antibodies. Next, we directly examined whether CSF resident antibodies targeted self-antigens and found a significant burden of CNS autoimmunity, with the CSF from most patients recognizing neural self-antigens. COVID-19 CSF produced immunoreactive staining of specific anatomic regions of the brain including cortical neurons, olfactory bulb, thalamus, and cerebral vasculature. Finally, we produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies from patients' CSF and peripheral blood, and show that these target both anti-viral and anti-neural antigens-including one CSF-derived mAb specific for the spike protein that also recognizes neural tissue (Fig1D). Conclusion: This immune survey reveals evidence of a compartmentalized and self-reactive immune response in the CNS in COVID-19 patients with neurologic symptoms. We identified both innate and adaptive anti-viral immune responses, as well as humoral autoimmunity that appears to be unique to the CNS during SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data suggest a potential role for autoimmunity in contributing to neurological symptoms, and merit further investigation to the potential role of autoantibodies in post-acute COVID-19 neurological symptoms.

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