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2.
Acad Med ; 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443108

ABSTRACT

Medical students demonstrate their passion for participating in and improving health care both within and outside the classroom. As the COVID-19 pandemic swept across the world, medical students in the United States engaged in student-led service-learning initiatives to contribute to medicine and their local communities, including collecting and distributing personal protective equipment, creating and translating pandemic-related educational materials, and providing childcare for frontline workers. Their impact was recognized and appreciated. Service learning is an education method that incorporates community outreach with didactic coursework and student reflection. In this Invited Commentary, the authors argue for including service learning as a required component in the medical school curriculum to provide students with the tools and support to be advocates and leaders within society, as no such curriculum currently exists. The authors also discuss the history of medical student-led service-learning efforts through to the present day, barriers to implementing and sustaining student-led service-learning initiatives, and solutions to prepare students for service-learning initiatives.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score predicts probability of in-hospital mortality. Many crisis standards of care suggest the use of SOFA scores to allocate medical resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are SOFA scores elevated among Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic patients hospitalized with COVID-19, compared to Non-Hispanic White patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted in Yale New Haven Health System, including 5 hospitals with total of 2681 beds. Study population drawn from consecutive patients aged ≥18 admitted with COVID-19 from March 29th to August 1st, 2020. Patients excluded from the analysis if not their first admission with COVID-19, if they did not have SOFA score recorded within 24 hours of admission, if race and ethnicity data were not Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, or Hispanic, or if they had other missing data. The primary outcome was SOFA score, with peak score within 24 hours of admission dichotomized as <6 or ≥6. RESULTS: Of 2982 patients admitted with COVID-19, 2320 met inclusion criteria and were analyzed, of whom 1058 (45.6%) were Non-Hispanic White, 645 (27.8%) were Hispanic, and 617 (26.6%) were Non-Hispanic Black. Median age was 65.0 and 1226 (52.8%) were female. In univariate logistic screen and in full multivariate model, Non-Hispanic Black patients but not Hispanic patients had greater odds of an elevated SOFA score ≥6 when compared to Non-Hispanic White patients (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.11-1.99). INTERPRETATION: Given current unequal patterns in social determinants of health, US crisis standards of care utilizing the SOFA score to allocate medical resources would be more likely to deny these resources to Non-Hispanic Black patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256763, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact in the United States, particularly for Black populations, and has heavily burdened the healthcare system. Hospitals have created protocols to allocate limited resources, but there is concern that these protocols will exacerbate disparities. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is a tool often used in triage protocols. In these protocols, patients with higher SOFA scores are denied resources based on the assumption that they have worse clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using SOFA score as a triage tool among COVID-positive patients would exacerbate racial disparities in clinical outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from a retrospective cohort of hospitalized COVID-positive patients in the Yale-New Haven Health System. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and peak overall/24-hour SOFA score, in-hospital mortality, and ICU admission. Other predictors of interest were age, sex, primary language, and insurance status. We used one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests to assess differences in SOFA score across racial/ethnic groups and linear and logistic regression to assess differences in clinical outcomes by sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Our final sample included 2,554 patients. Black patients had higher SOFA scores compared to patients of other races. However, Black patients did not have significantly greater in-hospital mortality or ICU admission compared to patients of other races. CONCLUSION: While Black patients in this sample of hospitalized COVID-positive patients had higher SOFA scores compared to patients of other races, this did not translate to higher in-hospital mortality or ICU admission. Results demonstrate that if SOFA score had been used to allocate care, Black COVID patients would have been denied care despite having similar clinical outcomes to white patients. Therefore, using SOFA score to allocate resources has the potential to exacerbate racial inequities by disproportionately denying care to Black patients and should not be used to determine access to care. Healthcare systems must develop and use COVID-19 triage protocols that prioritize equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Connecticut , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Triage/methods , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390623

ABSTRACT

Racial and gender discrimination are risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes in the general population; however, the effects of discrimination on the mental health of healthcare workers needs to be further explored, especially in relation to competing stressors. Thus, we administered a survey to healthcare workers to investigate the associations between perceived racial and gender discrimination and symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and burnout during a period of substantial stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic and a national racial reckoning. We used multivariable linear regression models, which controlled for demographics and pandemic-related stressors. Of the 997 participants (Mean Age = 38.22 years, SD = 11.77), 688 (69.01%) were White, 148 (14.84%) Asian, 86 (8.63%) Black, 73 (7.32%) Latinx, and 21 (2.11%) identified as another race. In multivariable models, racial discrimination predicted symptoms of depression (B = 0.04; SE: 0.02; p = .009), anxiety (B = 0.05; SE: 0.02; p = .004), and posttraumatic stress (B = 0.01; SE: 0.01; p = .006) and gender discrimination predicted posttraumatic stress (B = 0.11; SE: 0.05; p = .013) and burnout (B = 0.24; SE: 0.07; p = .001). Discrimination had indirect effects on mental health outcomes via inadequate social support. Hospital-wide diversity and inclusion initiatives are warranted to mitigate the adverse mental health effects of discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
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