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1.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Digital Health ; 1(3):203-209, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-20240500

ABSTRACT

The integration of digital health into the field of medicine has seen a marked increase with the advancement of technology. Before the pandemic, a marked portion of the adult population, more than 66%, owned smartphones, and approximately 15% owned wearables. The widespread use of such devices, along with the effect of COVID-19 pandemic, has led to a transformation in health care culture that prioritizes cocreation, codesign, and collaboration. This shift promotes a model of health care centered on patient empowerment and self-management. In a recent interview with Dave deBronkart, known as e-Patient Dave, we revisited the possibilities of this new approach aimed at empowering, engaging, and equipping e-patients in the context of the pandemic. This interview with deBronkart was originally used for a graduate course on digital health. However, after noticing many reoccurring themes throughout the discussion, we decided to further explore this matter. It was discovered that participatory medicine is a new paradigm in health care, which challenges the conventional, paternalistic model and emphasizes the importance of a collaborative relationship between patients and providers. The realization of the full potential of health care can be achieved by promoting patient engagement and activation through the adoption of participatory medicine.

2.
Brain and Neuroscience Advances ; 8(3):183-196, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2305356

ABSTRACT

Many organisms, including humans, have evolved dynamic social behaviors to promote survival. Public health studies show that isolation from social groups is a major risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans, but these studies lack mechanistic understanding. Animal models can provide insight into the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying how social isolation impacts health through investigations using genetic, genomic, molecular, and neuroscience methods. In this review, we discuss Drosophila melanogaster as a robust genetic model for studying the effects of social isolation and for developing a mechanistic understanding of the perception of social isolation and how it impacts health.

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5.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 31(1): 14-21, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In response to the needs of dementia caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic, the NYU Langone Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Family Support Program (FSP) quickly transitioned to providing most services online. To understand how dementia caregivers experienced FSP services after the switch to video telehealth, we conducted qualitative interviews of spouse or partner dementia caregivers. PARTICIPANTS: Ten participants were recruited from a convenience sample of dementia spouse or partner caregivers who used one or more online FSP services offered during the pandemic. DESIGN: Caregivers engaged in semi-structured interviews held via videoconference between May and June 2020. Qualitative analysis of interviews was conducted according to the principles of framework analysis. RESULTS: Caregivers reported high satisfaction with the FSP pre-pandemic and continued to feel supported when services were provided online. They transitioned to video telehealth services with little difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: While video telehealth is frequently cited as beneficial for those in rural communities, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, or homebound individuals, our findings suggest that video telehealth is also advantageous for dementia caregivers, given their unique barriers, including lack of time due to caregiving responsibilities, lack of respite care for the person with dementia, and the additional burdens of travel time to access in-person services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Telemedicine , Humans , Caregivers , Pandemics , Dementia/epidemiology
6.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221084513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753092

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including a hypercoagulable state leading to both arterial and venous thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the setting of COVID-19 has rarely been reported in the medical literature. Pylephlebitis with concomitant liver abscess is a rare complication of intra-abdominal infection. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old man who initially presented with intermittent fevers and generalized weakness of 1-month duration and was subsequently found to have COVID-19 infection, PVT, and Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia with associated pyogenic liver abscess. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and oral anticoagulation with plan to follow up outpatient with gastroenterology in 3 months to ensure resolution of PVT and liver abscess.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Venous Thrombosis , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteroides , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/complications , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/diagnosis , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Portal Vein , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
7.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S7):e054509, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1664370

ABSTRACT

Background Daily routines have been drastically impacted by COVID-19, including healthcare appointments, home services, and many recreational opportunities. Spousal dementia caregivers (CGs) are particularly vulnerable during COVID-19, as many rely on family members, daycare, in-home assistance, and other respite opportunities. We conducted qualitative interviews in May/June 2020 to understand the impact of COVID-19 on dementia CGs and how they experienced the switch of all the NYU ADRD Family Support Program (FSP) services to telehealth. Method A total of 10 spousal CGs participated in videoconference interviews about their COVID-19 experiences and the FSP?s transition to the telehealth format. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by one of two interviewers who were external to the FSP to encourage freedom of discussion. All sessions were recorded and transcribed. De-identified transcripts were coded by two independent coders using NVivo, with discrepancies resolved by a third researcher. Result CGs ranged in age from 54 to 86;7 were female, 8 were non-Hispanic White, and 2 were Black. All were New York City residents living with the person with dementia;2 households had additional adult family members. Qualitative analysis revealed several major themes related to COVID-19 experiences: fears surrounding COVID-19 and staying healthy;changes in daily routines;the impact of reduced respite and support services;adaptation to technology that enabled increased contact with family/friends. Feedback about the telehealth adaptation of the FSP included observations about new group dynamics and decreased barriers to involvement due to the ability to participate from home, reducing the need for transportation and other logistics related to traveling. Conclusion Despite significant challenges due to COVID-19, CGs reported benefit and support from the FSP in the new telehealth format. One participant described the FSP as ?indispensable? and expressed how much members relied on each other during COVID-19. In addition, we learned that the telehealth FSP not only served as a source of support during the crisis but that there were perceived advantages to this format, including reductions in barriers to in-person services (finding transportation, travel time, getting respite care for the person with dementia). We recommend continuing the option of telehealth services for dementia CGs after the COVID-19 crisis.

8.
Innovation in aging ; 5(Suppl 1):1006-1007, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624173

ABSTRACT

In summer 2020, researchers conducted a Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement (QA/QI) assessment of the NYU Langone Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias Family Support Program’s adaptations in response to COVID by interviewing 10 participating spouse caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD). The primary adaptations were shifting from in-person to online services, changing support groups from biweekly to weekly, and offering an arts-based group for PWD daily rather than weekly . In the course of these interviews, all respondents described their adaptation to remote teleconferencing programming, and five also contrasted their experiences with those of the PWD. Methods After transcription and de-identification, a codebook was created from the transcript content that included a priori topics of interest as well as emergent themes using framework analysis. These transcripts were then coded by two independent coders through an iterative process and consultation with the codebook creator, who also resolved any discrepancies between coders. Results Respondents reported largely successful transitions to teleconferencing for themselves, though missing the physical contact afforded by meeting in-person. However, they also described some interactional challenges related to participants talking over one another, and suggested more active moderating to facilitate greater turn-taking. The respondents’ descriptions of the PWD’s response suggested a much less successful transition to teleconferencing. Challenges and barriers included lack of interest, difficulty following or participating in conversation, and teleconferencing creating confusion, such making it “hard for her to separate out when everybody's in the same place or not."

9.
Innovation in aging ; 5(Suppl 1):1028-1029, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602504

ABSTRACT

Caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) often experience increases in depression, anxiety, and burden as the disease progresses. In fact, as the PWD’s neuropsychiatric symptoms increase and independence in ADLS decrease, caregivers psychological and physical health outcomes worsen. The literature suggests that caregiver interventions that teach specific skills are more beneficial than psychoeducational interventions, particularly regarding the amelioration of the psychological impacts of informal caregiving. However, because of caregiving demands, caregiver’s own physical limitations, and competing obligations, it can be difficult to attend caregiver support or education programs outside the home. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, arranging such interventions became more complex, Therefore, we report on preliminary qualitative outcomes of a study investigating the feasibility and acceptability of converting an in-person, group dementia caregiver education intervention, CARE, to a telehealth platform. We report the findings of two objectives: 1) lessons learned when attempting to convert an in-person group intervention to telehealth and 2) experience and perceived benefit of attending a virtual group from the perspective of the participants of our first two groups. Briefly, our findings demonstrate the strong need for technological support. Participants report positive experience regarding the convenience of attending the group from their home, the benefits of the assigned exercises, and the support they found from other group members. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many to embrace the virtual option as they adapt to a new normal. There are undoubtedly hurdles to overcome, but there are also advantages to be leveraged.

10.
Innovation in aging ; 5(Suppl 1):1037-1038, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602336

ABSTRACT

Caring for a person with dementia (PWD) has been consistently associated with negative effects on health, including increases in caregiver depression, anxiety, and burden. Emerging studies have shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased these factors due to reported increases in caregiver workload and cognitive and behavioral symptoms of the PWD. We interviewed 10 spousal caregivers of PWD from the NYU Langone Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias Family Support Program in Summer 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to gain feedback about their experiences during the pandemic and the transition from in-person to videoconferencing that could be used to improve services and support. Caregivers discussed the challenges faced during the pandemic but also the unique opportunities the situation presented. We report here on those positive aspects of COVID-19 from the perspective of the caregivers we interviewed. Methods Interviews of caregivers residing with their spouses in the New York City area were conducted via videoconferencing, transcribed, deidentified, and analyzed using framework analysis methods. Results We found that caregivers reported some positive reaction to videoconferencing that included increased support group cohesion, increased convenience, feeling less obligated to participate in events, and new opportunities for social contact. Participants also discussed positive inter-couple relationship changes such as increased quality time spent together. Our findings resonate with a body of literature focused on understanding the positive aspects of caregiving. Understanding the full presentation of the caregiver experience, including both positive and negative aspects, is important for developing interventions and resources for this unique group.

11.
Acta Trop ; 224: 106130, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479555

ABSTRACT

Assays for parasite detection in insect vectors provide important information for disease control. American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is the most devastating vector-borne illness and the fourth most common in Central America behind HIV/AIDS and acute respiratory and diarrheal infections (Peterson et al., 2019). Under-detection of parasites is a general problem which may be influenced by parasite genetic variation; however, little is known about the genetic variation of the Chagas parasite, especially in this region. In this study we compared six assays for detecting the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi: genomic reduced representation sequencing (here referred to as genotype-by-sequencing or GBS), two with conventional PCR (i.e., agarose gel detection), two with qPCR, and microscopy. Our results show that, compared to GBS genomic analysis, microscopy and PCR under-detected T. cruzi in vectors from Central America. Of 94 samples, 44% (50/94) were positive based on genomic analysis. The lowest detection, 9% (3/32) was in a subset assayed with microscopy. Four PCR assays, two with conventional PCR and two with qPCR showed intermediate levels of detection. Both qPCR tests and one conventional PCR test targeted the 195 bp repeat of satellite DNA while the fourth test targeted the 18S gene. Statistical analyses of the genomic and PCR results indicate that the PCR assays significantly under detect infections of Central American T. cruzi genotypes.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animals , Central America , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triatoma/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(1): 72-81, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the performance of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in predicting adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Emcare databases from 1989 to March 2019 to identify studies correlating sFlt-1, PlGF, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio with the occurrence of adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers screened 3,194 studies using Covidence. Studies were included if they examined the performance of sFLT-1, PlGF, or the sFLT-1/PlGF ratio in predicting adverse outcomes in women with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We extracted contingency tables with true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative results. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (area sROC) through a bivariate mixed-effects meta-analysis. Our literature search identified 3,194 articles, of which 33 (n=9,426 patients) were included. There was significant variation in the included studies with regard to the biomarkers and outcomes assessed. As such, few studies (n=4-8) were included in the meta-analysis component with significant heterogeneity between studies (I2=33-99). Nonetheless, both PlGF and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio demonstrated area sROC values between 0.68 and 0.87 for the prediction of composite adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes, preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: Placental growth factor and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio show prognostic promise for adverse outcomes in preeclampsia, but study heterogeneity limits their clinical utility. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019136207.


Subject(s)
Placenta Growth Factor/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy
13.
Neurohospitalist ; 12(1): 31-37, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been attributed to COVID-19, but there is currently limited evidence regarding risk factors and outcomes for delirium in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to identify delirium in a large cohort of ICU patients with COVID-19, and to identify associated features and clinical outcomes at the time of hospital discharge. METHODS: This is an observational cohort study of 213 consecutive patients admitted to an ICU for COVID-19 respiratory illness. Delirium was diagnosed by trained abstractors using the CHART-DEL instrument. The associations between key clinical features, sedation and delirium were examined, as were the impacts of delirium on clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Delirium was identified in 57.3% of subjects. Delirious patients were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation, had lower P: F ratios, higher rates of renal replacement therapy and ECMO, and were more likely to receive enteral benzodiazepines. Only mechanical ventilation remained a significant predictor of delirium in a logistic regression model. Mortality was not significantly different, but delirious patients experienced greater mechanical ventilation duration, ICU/hospital lengths of stay, worse functional outcomes at discharge, and were less likely to be discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium is common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and appears to be associated with greater disease severity. When present, delirium is associated with worse functional status at discharge, but not increased mortality. Additional studies are necessary to determine the generalizability of these results and the impact of delirium on longer-term cognitive and functional outcomes.

14.
mSystems ; 6(4): e0079321, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350006

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based surveillance has gained prominence and come to the forefront as a leading indicator of forecasting COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infection dynamics owing to its cost-effectiveness and its ability to inform early public health interventions. A university campus could especially benefit from wastewater surveillance, as universities are characterized by largely asymptomatic populations and are potential hot spots for transmission that necessitate frequent diagnostic testing. In this study, we employed a large-scale GIS (geographic information systems)-enabled building-level wastewater monitoring system associated with the on-campus residences of 7,614 individuals. Sixty-eight automated wastewater samplers were deployed to monitor 239 campus buildings with a focus on residential buildings. Time-weighted composite samples were collected on a daily basis and analyzed on the same day. Sample processing was streamlined significantly through automation, reducing the turnaround time by 20-fold and exceeding the scale of similar surveillance programs by 10- to 100-fold, thereby overcoming one of the biggest bottlenecks in wastewater surveillance. An automated wastewater notification system was developed to alert residents to a positive wastewater sample associated with their residence and to encourage uptake of campus-provided asymptomatic testing at no charge. This system, integrated with the rest of the "Return to Learn" program at the University of California (UC) San Diego-led to the early diagnosis of nearly 85% of all COVID-19 cases on campus. COVID-19 testing rates increased by 1.9 to 13× following wastewater notifications. Our study shows the potential for a robust, efficient wastewater surveillance system to greatly reduce infection risk as college campuses and other high-risk environments reopen. IMPORTANCE Wastewater-based epidemiology can be particularly valuable at university campuses where high-resolution spatial sampling in a well-controlled context could not only provide insight into what affects campus community as well as how those inferences can be extended to a broader city/county context. In the present study, a large-scale wastewater surveillance was successfully implemented on a large university campus enabling early detection of 85% of COVID-19 cases thereby averting potential outbreaks. The highly automated sample processing to reporting system enabled dramatic reduction in the turnaround time to 5 h (sample to result time) for 96 samples. Furthermore, miniaturization of the sample processing pipeline brought down the processing cost significantly ($13/sample). Taken together, these results show that such a system could greatly ameliorate long-term surveillance on such communities as they look to reopen.

15.
Front Neurol ; 11: 964, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853972

ABSTRACT

This article describes the clinical course, radiological findings, and outcome of two patients with the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who remained comatose for a prolonged duration following discontinuation of all sedation. These two male patients, one aged 59-years and another aged 53-years, both with a history of hypertension and neurologically intact on admission, developed worsening COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Both required benzodiazepine, opioid, neuromuscular blockade, therapeutic anticoagulation, and vasopressor infusions in addition to renal replacement therapy. Echocardiography demonstrated normal chamber size and systolic function in both cases. Each patient demonstrated only trace flexion to pain 7-10 days following discontinuation of all sedation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging on both patients demonstrated multifocal lesions on diffusion weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient correlate in bilateral middle/anterior cerebral artery borderzones, and no large-vessel occlusion or severe stenosis. In both patients, continuous electroencephalography demonstrated no seizures. Neither patient had any documented period of sustained hypotension (mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg) or hypoxia (SpO2 <90%). Ninety days following initial presentation, the 59-years-old man was oriented, with fluent speech and able to ambulate with assistance, while the other 53-years-old man was at home and independent, undertaking the basic activities required by daily living. We conclude that critically-ill COVID-19 patients with prolonged coma following sedation discontinuation may demonstrate imaging features of ischemic injury in borderzone regions despite the absence of documented sustained hypotension or hypoxia. However, substantial neurological recovery is possible despite these findings.

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