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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1025, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations between COVID-19 related stigma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and the associations between PTSS and COVID-19 related stigma, HIV status, COVID-19 status and key HIV population status. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data of 12,355 study participants generated through an online survey that recruited adults from 152 countries between July and December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19-related stigma and PTSS. The independent variables were HIV status (positive/negative), transaction sex (yes/no), use of psychoactive drugs (yes/no), and vulnerability status (transaction sex workers, people who use psychoactive drugs, living with HIV, and COVID-19 status). The confounding variables were age, sex at birth (male/female), level of education, sexual minority individuals (yes/no) and country income level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: There were 835 (6.8%) participants who experienced COVID-19 related stigma during the pandemic and 3,824 (31.0%) participants reported PTSS. Respondents who were living with HIV (AOR: 1.979; 95%CI: 1.522-2.573), tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 3.369; 95%CI: 2.692-4.217), engaged in transactional sex (AOR: 1.428; 95%CI: 1.060-1.922) and used psychoactive drugs (AOR: 1.364; 95%CI: 1.053-1.767) had significantly higher odds of experiencing COVID-19 related stigma. Individuals with vulnerability status (AOR:4.610; 95%CI: 1.590-13.368) and who experienced COVID-19 related stigma (AOR: 2.218; 95%CI: 1.920-2.561) had significantly higher odds of PTSS. CONCLUSION: Individuals with vulnerability status may be at increased risk for COVID-19 related stigma. Key and vulnerable populations who were living with HIV and who experienced stigma may be at a higher risk of experiencing PTSS. Populations at risk for PTSS should be routinely screened and provided adequate support when they contract COVID-19 to reduce the risk for poor mental health during COVID-19 outbreaks and during future health crisis with similar magnitude as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Perception
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 90, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and COVID-19 preventive behaviours among people living with HIV during the pandemic has received little attention in the literature. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study assessed the associations between viral load, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the use of COVID-19 prevention strategies during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a secondary analysis of data generated through an online survey recruiting participants from 152 countries. Complete data from 680 respondents living with HIV were extracted for this analysis. RESULTS: The findings suggest that detectable viral load was associated with lower odds of wearing facemasks (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI:0.28-0.69; p < 0.01) and washing hands as often as recommended (AOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.97; p = 0.03). Also, adherence to the use of antiretroviral drugs was associated with lower odds of working remotely (AOR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.94; p = 0.02). We found a complex relationship between HIV positive status biological parameters and adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures that may be partly explained by risk-taking behaviours. Further studies are needed to understand the reasons for the study findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Viral Load , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Tob Induc Dis ; 21: 14, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277258

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has inevitably led to monumental challenges, and alcohol drinking and tobacco use have unlikely been spared. This cross-sectional survey reports on factors associated with an increase in alcohol drinking and tobacco use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey conducted in 2020, generated data from 14899 adults residing in 105 countries. Dependent variables were changes in alcohol drinking and tobacco use. Independent variables were age, sex, education level, job loss, lost or reduced wages, investment/retirement benefits, interrupted substance addiction care, and income level of the countries. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was computed to explore the associations between dependent and independent variables in adjusted models using the backward stepwise method. The probability of including or excluding a covariate was set at p(in)<0.05 and p(out)>0.1, respectively. RESULTS: Of the regular alcohol consumers (N=4401), 22.9% reported an increase in their alcohol drinking. Of the regular tobacco users (N=2718), 31% reported an increase in their tobacco use. Job loss (Alcohol: AOR=1.26; Tobacco: AOR=1.32) and lost/reduced wages (Alcohol: AOR=1.52; Tobacco: AOR=1.52) were associated with higher odds of increased alcohol drinking and tobacco use. Many interruptions to addiction care (AOR=1.75) were associated with higher odds of increased alcohol drinking. Whereas no interruption to addiction care was associated with lower odds of increased alcohol drinking (AOR=0.77). Also, none (AOR=0.66) or some (AOR=0.70) interruptions to addiction care were associated with lower odds of increased tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: This global survey alludes to the unintended consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol drinking and tobacco use. It is critical that the strategies for emergency responses should include support to ameliorate the impact of financial distress and disruption in substance dependence treatment services.

5.
Adolescents ; 3(1):131-140, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2240746

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the mental health status of 18- and 19-year-old adolescents who were infected or affected by COVID-19 during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a secondary analysis of a dataset collected from 152 countries between July and December 2020. Dependent variables were anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The independent variable was COVID-19 status (tested positive for COVID-19, had COVID-19 symptoms but did not test, had a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19, knew someone who died from COVID-19). Three multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between the dependent and independent variables while adjusting for confounding variables (sex - male, female, and country income level). Data of 547 participants were extracted, and 98 (17.9%) had experienced depression, 130 (23.8%) had experienced anxiety, and 219 (40.0%) had experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms. Knowing someone who died from COVID-19 was associated with significantly lower odds of having post-traumatic stress symptoms (AOR: 0.608). Having COVID-19 symptoms but not getting tested was associated with significantly higher odds of having anxiety symptoms (AOR: 2.473). Results indicate diverse mental health responses among adolescents aged 18-19-years old as a sequela of COVID-19. This needs to be studied further.

6.
Tobacco induced diseases ; 21, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2234639

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION The COVID-19 pandemic has inevitably led to monumental challenges, and alcohol drinking and tobacco use have unlikely been spared. This cross-sectional survey reports on factors associated with an increase in alcohol drinking and tobacco use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS An online survey conducted in 2020, generated data from 14899 adults residing in 105 countries. Dependent variables were changes in alcohol drinking and tobacco use. Independent variables were age, sex, education level, job loss, lost or reduced wages, investment/retirement benefits, interrupted substance addiction care, and income level of the countries. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was computed to explore the associations between dependent and independent variables in adjusted models using the backward stepwise method. The probability of including or excluding a covariate was set at p(in)<0.05 and p(out)>0.1, respectively. RESULTS Of the regular alcohol consumers (N=4401), 22.9% reported an increase in their alcohol drinking. Of the regular tobacco users (N=2718), 31% reported an increase in their tobacco use. Job loss (Alcohol: AOR=1.26;Tobacco: AOR=1.32) and lost/reduced wages (Alcohol: AOR=1.52;Tobacco: AOR=1.52) were associated with higher odds of increased alcohol drinking and tobacco use. Many interruptions to addiction care (AOR=1.75) were associated with higher odds of increased alcohol drinking. Whereas no interruption to addiction care was associated with lower odds of increased alcohol drinking (AOR=0.77). Also, none (AOR=0.66) or some (AOR=0.70) interruptions to addiction care were associated with lower odds of increased tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS This global survey alludes to the unintended consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol drinking and tobacco use. It is critical that the strategies for emergency responses should include support to ameliorate the impact of financial distress and disruption in substance dependence treatment services.

7.
BioMed ; 3(1):113-124, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2225053

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with emotional distress and determine if the quality of family relationships and the perception of social isolation can protect those who transacted sex or used psychoactive substances from emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for 426 people who transacted sex and 630 persons who used psychoactive drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic were extracted from a database of participants recruited from 152 countries. The extracted data were the dependent (emotional distress), independent (age, sex, education status, employment status, HIV status, the perception of social isolation, and the quality of family relationships), and confounding (country income level) variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. Students who transacted sex (AOR:2.800) and who used psychoactive substances (AOR:2.270) had significantly higher odds of emotional distress. Participants who transacted sex, lived with HIV (AOR:2.582), or had the same/better quality of family relationships (AOR:1.829) had significantly higher odds of emotional distress. The participants who used psychoactive substances, had tertiary education (AOR:1.979), were retired (AOR: 2.772), were unemployed (AOR:2.263), or felt socially isolated (AOR:2.069) had significantly higher odds of emotional distress. Being a student was the only sociodemographic risk indicator common to both populations. The risk indicators and protective factors for emotional distress differed for both populations despite both being at high risk for emotional distress.

8.
Brain Sci ; 13(2)2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225059

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the associations between psychosocial factors (social isolation, social support, financial support and emotional distress) and memory complaints during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a secondary analysis of data extracted from the dataset of participants recruited from 151 countries for a COVID-19 related mental health and wellness study between June and December 2020. The dependent variable was memory complaint, measured using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire. The independent variables were perception of social isolation, social support, financial support, emotional distress and history of SARS-CoV-19 infection. Confounding variables were age, sex at birth, level of education, employment status, HIV status and country-income level. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for the confounders. Of the 14825 participants whose data was extracted, 2460 (16.6%) had memory complaints. Participants who felt socially isolated (AOR: 1.422; 95% CI: 1.286-1.571), emotionally distressed (AOR: 2.042; 95% CI: 1.850-2.253) and with history of SARS-CoV-19 infection (AOR: 1.369; 95% CI: 1.139-1.646) had significantly higher odds of memory complaints. Participants who perceived they had social and financial support had significantly lower odds of memory complaints (AOR: 0.655; 95% CI: 0.571-0.751). Future management of pandemics like the COVID-19 should promote access to social and financial support and reduce the risk of social isolation and emotional distress.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 90, 2023 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare services were significantly interrupted during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the present study was to determine the associations between sociodemographic factors and healthcare access during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among individuals with critical care needs. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the data of 5,156 participants recruited from 152 countries during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The dependent variables were self-reported difficulty of access to health care, challenges with obtaining medication, and the use of alternative medical services. The independent variables were age at last birthday; sex at birth, level of education, employment status and the macro-social vulnerability status. The confounding variable was the country income level. Three multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between the dependent variables and the independent variables after adjusting for the confounder. RESULTS: Difficulty accessing health care services and obtaining medications was experienced by 1922 (37.3%) and 3746 (72.7%) participants respectively. Also, 1433 (27.8%) used alternative medical care. Retirees (AOR:1.59), unemployed (AOR:1.198), people living with HIV (AOR:2.36) and at increased risk of COVID-19 (AOR:2.10), people who used drugs (AOR:1.83) and transacted sex (AOR:1.971) had significantly higher odds for reporting difficulty with access to health care. Males (AOR:1.23), respondents with secondary level of education (AOR:1.39), retirees (AOR:2.19), unemployed (AOR:1.47), people living with HIV (AOR:2.46), people who used drugs (AOR:1.79), transacted sex (AOR:2.71) and those who might be (AOR: 1.66) and were at (AOR: 2.3) increased risk of severe COVID-19 had significantly higher odds for reporting difficulty with access to medications. People who used drugs (AOR:2.093) transacted sex (AOR:1.639), who might be (AOR: 1.211) and were at (AOR: 1.511) increased risk of severe COVID-19, and who had difficulty accessing usual healthcare (AOR: 9.047) and obtaining medications (AOR:2.16) had significantly higher odds of reporting alternative medical care use. People living with HIV (AOR:0.562) had significantly lower odds of using alternative medical care. CONCLUSION: We identified populations who had challenges with access to healthcare and obtaining medications used alternative medical care except for people living with HIV. Priority attention should be given to alternative medical care use during future health pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Infant, Newborn , Male , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Health Services Accessibility , Self Report , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(31): e29907, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051696

ABSTRACT

Since the emergency approval of several therapeutic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in the United States, >500 million doses have been administered. However, there have been disparities in vaccine acceptability and uptake. We examined demographic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, and psychosocial factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in older adults (≥50 years) living with HIV in the Coachella Valley, California. Participants completed a 1-time anonymous online questionnaire assessing their demographic (i.e., age, race, education, etc), HIV disease (i.e., viral suppression, years living with HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis), psychosocial (i.e., HIV-related stigma, personal mastery, depression, etc) characteristics, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability. Respondents were offered an electronic $20 United States dollar (USD) gift card for survey completion. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable tests were conducted to analyze the data. Between September 2020 and February 2021, 114 surveys were completed. Eighty-six (75%) agreed/strongly agreed with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability statement that they saw no problem with receiving a COVID-19 vaccine if one became available. Among those who agreed/strongly agreed, the mean age was 62.2 years (standard deviation = 7.20); 86% self-identified as White; 95% male; 91% with more than high school education; and 31% with annual income <$20,000 USD. Among respondents who disagreed/strongly disagreed, the mean age was 59.9 years (standard deviation = 4.85); 50% self-identified as White; 50% male; 64% with more than high school education; and 4% with annual income <$20,000 USD. In the univariable analyses, those who disagreed/strongly disagreed with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability statement were significantly more likely to be living with HIV for fewer years, experiencing higher levels of HIV-related stigma and depression, and with lower levels of personal mastery. In the multivariable logistic regression model, self-identification as female vs male and unemployed vs employed was significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.71 and odds ratio = 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.70 respectively), adjusting for ethnicity, marital status, education, disability, years living with HIV, HIV-related stigma, and depression. Additional studies are needed to understand vaccine-related decision-making among older adults living with HIV. Programmatic efforts may also be necessary to disseminate accurate information/resources about COVID-19 vaccines to those with more recent HIV diagnoses, experiencing HIV-related stigma and depression, with lower levels of personal mastery, and facing socioeconomic disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Stigma , United States/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032969

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the association between emotional distress, sleep changes, decreased frequency of tooth brushing, and self-reported oral ulcers, and the association between COVID-19 status and decreased frequency of tooth brushing. Using a cross-sectional online survey, data were collected from adults in 152 countries between July and December 2020. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between dependent (decreased frequency of tooth brushing, oral ulcers, change in sleep pattern) and independent (tested positive for COVID-19, depression, anxiety, frustration/boredom, loneliness, anger, and grief/feeling of loss) variables after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, level of education, employment status). Of the 14,970 participants data analyzed, 1856 (12.4%) tested positive for COVID-19. Respondents who reported feeling depressed (AoR: 1.375), lonely (AoR: 1.185), angry (AoR: 1.299), and experienced sleep changes (AoR:1.466) had significantly higher odds of decreased tooth brushing frequency. Respondents who felt anxious (AoR: 1.255), angry (AoR: 1.510), grief/sense of loss (AoR: 1.236), and sleep changes (AoR: 1.262) had significantly higher odds of oral ulcers. Respondents who tested positive for COVID-19 had significantly higher odds of decreased tooth brushing frequency (AoR: 1.237) and oral ulcers (AoR: 2.780). These findings highlight that the relationship between emotional distress and oral health may intensify during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Ulcer , Psychological Distress , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Toothbrushing
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 689, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated circumstances that place older adults at higher risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Identifying characteristics of elder abuse during COVID-19 is critically important. This study characterized and compared elder abuse patterns across two time periods, a one-year period during the pandemic, and a corresponding one-year period prior to the start of the pandemic. METHODS: Contacts (including social media contacts, and email; all referred to as "calls" for expediency) made to the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) resource line were examined for differences in types of reported elder abuse and characteristics of alleged perpetrators prior to the pandemic (Time 1; March 16, 2018 to March 15, 2019) and during the pandemic (Time 2; March 16, 2020 to March 15, 2021). Calls were examined for whether or not abuse was reported, the types of reported elder abuse, including financial, physical, sexual, emotional, and neglect, and characteristics of callers, victims, and alleged perpetrators. Chi-square tests of independence compared frequencies of elder abuse characteristics between time periods. RESULTS: In Time 1, 1401 calls were received, of which 795 calls (56.7%) described abuse. In Time 2, 1009 calls were received, of which 550 calls (54.5%) described abuse. The difference between time periods in frequency of abuse to non-abuse calls was not significant ([Formula: see text]). Time periods also did not significantly differ with regard to caller, victim, and perpetrator characteristics. Greater rates of physical abuse ([Formula: see text] and emotional abuse ([Formula: see text] were reported during Time 2 after adjustment for multiple comparisons. An increased frequency of multiple forms of abuse was also found in Time 2 compared to Time 1 ([Formula: see text]. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest differences in specific elder abuse subtypes and frequency of co-occurrence between subtypes between time periods, pointing to a potential increase in the severity of elder abuse during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Elder Abuse , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elder Abuse/diagnosis , Elder Abuse/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors
13.
Fam Relat ; 71(3): 865-875, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819896

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim was to assess the reported family relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic and the association between these relationships and individual, interpersonal, and country-level income in eight Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. Background: COVID-19 causes fear of infection, loss of loved ones, and economic problems that may affect family relationships. Methods: Data were collected from eight MENA countries using an online survey (July-August 2020). The dependent variable was change in family relationship during COVID-19, and the independent variables were individual, interpersonal, and country-level factors represented by sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 status, financial impact (whether participants lost or had reduced wages) and country income. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: There were 1854 responses, mean (SD) age of 30.6 (9.9) years, 65.8% were female, 3.4% tested COVID-19 positive, and 20.8% reported lost/reduced wages. Family relationships were more likely to improve or remain unchanged (84.3%) for participants who had a history of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.25, 10.01]). However, family relationships were more likely to not improve for those who knew someone who died of COVID-19 (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58, 0.99]) and those with lost/reduced wages (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.52, 0.94]). Conclusion: Family relationship improved or remained unchanged for those who tested positive for COVID-19 and did not improve for those who lost wages or lost someone due to COVID-19. Implications: Policy makers should develop strategies to provide social and financial support to employees to reduce the losses and adverse social impact caused by the pandemic.

14.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(4): 265-275, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348374

ABSTRACT

We conducted surveys in March 2020 with 100 older adults living in Palm Springs, CA, to (1) report the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their day-to-day well-being and (2) describe the factors related to missing HIV medication during the pandemic. Respondent's mean age was 64.2 and the majority identified as White, men, and gay. The majority stated that the pandemic had impacted their lives "much," "very much," or "extremely." One-third experienced financial challenges and 46.0% experienced disruptions to health care. Almost a quarter (24.0%) reported missing a dose of their HIV medication during the pandemic. Compared to those ages 64+, younger respondents were more likely to report some negative impacts like changes in sleep patterns, financial challenges, and missed HIV medication doses, and had higher PTSD severity scores. In adjusted logistic regression, higher PTSD severity scores and disruption to health care were associated with missed doses of medications (ps < .05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 636786, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094230

ABSTRACT

Background: The importance of advance care planning (ACP) discussions have been heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed advance directive completion, healthcare proxy (HCP), and attitudes toward ACP among older adults ages 50+ living with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Internet-based surveys were administered to 100 participants residing in the Coachella Valley, California from April to June 2020. We examined self-reported completion of an advance directive, HCP, and attitudes toward ACP before and after COVID-19. Adjusted regressions were performed on attitudes toward ACP. Results: Participants' mean age was 64.2 years, most were non-Hispanic white (88.0%), men (96.0%), and identified as sexual minorities (96.0%). Many reported having an advance directive (59.6%) or HCP (67.3%). Most (57.6%) believed ACP to be more important now compared to the pre-pandemic era. Having an advance directive was associated with increase in age, higher education, living with other people, never having an AIDS diagnosis, and current undetectable viral load (p < 0.05). Having a HCP was associated with higher education, being married/partnered, and living with other people (p < 0.05). In a logistic regression model adjusted for education and living situation, the belief that ACP was more important during COVID was associated with not having an advance directive (OR: 5.07, 95% CI: 1.78-14.40) and fear of COVID-19 infection (OR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.61-10.76.) Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic presents a window of opportunity to engage people aging with HIV in ACP discussions, particularly those who do not already have an advance directive.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning/trends , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Advance Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , Aged , California , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-260228
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